Summary of the Education Under Attack 2022 Report

In 2020 and 2021, education continued to face various types of aggression in several countries. Students, teachers, schools, and universities encountered harmful and wrongful acts committed either by armed groups or generated by political circumstances, such as wars and armed conflicts. Numerous incidents of atrocities were reported to be committed against thousands of students, staff members, and teachers. The Global Coalition to Protect Education from Attack (GCPEA) identified many attacks that resulted in the abduction, injury, or death of thousands of students and educators who were kept as hostages or were arrested. Other acts of violence also took a place, such recruiting and training children to participate in armed conflicts, sexual violence, and the use of heavy arms and explosives against hostages.


The Education under Attack 2022 report by GCPEA[i] reviews the challenges many countries’ education systems face, as well as how students, teachers, and staff members in education are affected by such issues, what kind of dangers they are subjected to, and why, in many cases, their studies or career are interrupted.


According to this report, more schools suffer from violent actions and attacks compared to universities. Moreover, due to the Covid-19 pandemic, schools became easier targets for state militaries and other armed groups to occupy, as remote teaching left the buildings empty. Consequently, according to the report, the number of attacks on educational institutions increased noticeably in 2020 and 2021, but the number of people affected by these attacks declined. According to the GCPEA, this can be explained by the decreased number of people present in school buildings due to the pandemic.


In the following, this article provides a summary of the Education Under Attack 2022 report’s findings on several countries where such attacks and issues occurred.


  • Afghanistan:

The GCPEA identified more than 130 attacks in 2020 and 2021, targeting schools in different parts of Afghanistan, where explosive weapons were used against educational institutions, and schoolteachers and students were terrorised [p.92]. Attacks were committed by groups with different profiles, such as the Afghan Air Force which bombed schools in 2020 [p.93], the ISIS in Khorasan Province, and the Taliban which increased their criminal activity in 2021 seeking territorial dominance. Moreover, after the Taliban took control of the country in May 2021 with the withdrawal of US troops from Afghanistan, there was a significant increase in atrocities targeting different civilian groups, women, and journalists meanwhile more than 250 schools closed in Afghanistan or were exposed to military occupation [p.92]. The rise to power of the Taliban severely affected Afghan education, leaving more than 4 million children out of school, 60% of whom were girls. This is because the Taliban prohibited girls from attending schools in some of the regions under their control, although in some other areas girls were allowed to go to school. Unfortunately, the report does not give any specific explanation for the different rules on girls’ education among different regions ruled by the Taliban.


  • Azerbaijan:

The six-week conflict in 2020 between Azerbaijan, Armenia, and the de facto Nagorno-Karabakh security forces resulted in the destruction of more than 130 schools in and around Nagorno-Karabakh, as well as several other schools faced obstruction due to the conflict. While the Nagorno-Karabakh authorities reported damage to more than 70 schools during the conflict, the Azerbaijani authorities reported 54 cases [p.98]. However, the Armenian authorities did not report clear numbers on school damage or attacks on educational institutions during the conflict period. According to Human Rights Watch, both Azerbaijani and Armenian forces either attacked schools using explosives or initiated air-striking targeting educational institutions. Furthermore, some schools were used as barracks or for military purposes in all territories involved, according to the GCPEA [p.99].


  • Burkina Faso:

Burkina Faso witnessed one of its fastest-growing crises in 2020 and 2021. A serious conflict escalated among different non-state armed groups fighting against each other as well as the state security forces. Brutality against civilians was not only committed by non-state armed groups but by security forces too who also arrested and killed many civilians whom they suspected to be associated with the non-state armed groups.


In Burkina Faso too, schools were easy targets for perpetrators and several schools suffered armed attacks or were reported to be occupied and used as military bases. In 2020-2021, there were more than 145 attacks on schools reported in the country according to the GCPEA, during which attacks more than 250 students and school personnel were killed, suffered injuries, or were abducted. In 2020, 70 attacks [p.101], while in 2021, 46 attacks on schools were confirmed by the UN [p.102]. However, the GCPEA identified at least 78 attacks in 2021 [p.102].


Higher education institutions also faced violence, but the reported number of attacks on universities was way lower than that of schools. Nevertheless, according to the GCPEA, both general education and university students experienced sexual violence while going to or coming back from their schools or universities.


  • Cameroon:

Attacks on schools and students are not new phenomena in Cameroon, and the period from 2020 to 2021 was no different from previous years. Attacks were committed by different armed groups, such as Boko Haram, and the ISWAP group which is a splinter group from Boko Haram in the Far-North region. [p.105].


In 2020 and 2021, schools were often used as military bases in different parts of the country, such as the Far North, the North-West, and the South-West regions [p.105]. Furthermore, the GCPEA confirmed more than 55 attacks on students and more than 65 attacks on schools in those two years.  However, these numbers are still significantly decreased compared to prior years, like 2019, when the number of reported attacks against students reached almost 4000 cases while teachers experienced atrocities on 1124 occasions.


In 2020 and 2021, cases of sexual violence and sexual abuse targeting higher education students and teachers were also reported [p.108], while in 2021, there were also several reported cases of abducting students and staff [p.109].



  • Central African Republic:

The Central African Republic experienced significant brutality associated with elections. Conflict emerged between non-state armed groups and state forces supported by pro-government allied groups. All of these conflicting parties, including the police, occupied or attacked schools during the period from 2020 to 2021 at least on 85 occasions [p.110]. The GCPEA reported 2 attacks targeting students, teachers, and academic personnel. Furthermore, the GCPEA reported 45 cases of using schools for military purposes in the highlighted period [p.111].  In 2021, the UN verified that multiple dozens of schools were occupied by different military or armed forces, but the GCPEA identified only 5 cases in the same year, which resulted in unclear numbers and information [p.112].


  • Colombia:

Armed conflict continued to be present in Colombia in 2020 and 2021. The conflicted parties were the Columbian government, the Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia (FARC), and other armed groups that escalated chaos in the country in 2020. Due to these issues, accessibility to education suffered major limitations which were exacerbated by the spread of Covid-19. Because of the pandemic, large numbers of children were out of school and have become easy targets of recruiters for groups participating in the armed conflict [p.113].


According to GCPEA reports, at least 35 schools, mostly in rural areas, were targeted by different non-state armed groups, who often used explosives and engaged in fights with each other or with state forces near schools [p.113, 114]. Some schools ended up being used for military purposes. However, while the GCPEA identified 6 cases in the 2020 to 2021 period, the UN confirmed only 1 incident in 2020 [p.116] which makes it difficult to access clear and certain information on the number of attacks.


Higher education institutions were not safe from attacks either; in 2020 and 2021, 19 cases were reported [p.118]. Furthermore, the GCPEA identified more than 60 attacks targeting students and members of staff in 2020 and 2021, with most of these incidents occurring in 2020. Furthermore, 2 cases of sexual violence were reported by the GCPEA in 2021 [p.117].


Eventually, some teachers received threats from non-state armed groups for their involvement in teachers’ unions, while also threatening non-local teachers to keep them out of certain regions. This prompted state authorities to move some teachers to safer locations [p.115].


  • Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) :

Armed conflict has been significantly affecting the Democratic Republic of Congo, where clashes among state forces and 130 different non-state armed groups are spreading chaos around the country. The fighting negatively affected thousands of students and prohibited them from attending school, which was further exacerbated by the spread of Covid-19, leaving millions of students without education.


More than 600 attacks by armed groups on schools were confirmed by the GCPEA in 2020 and 2021. The organisation also reported on the occupation of 25 schools that were used for military purposes [p.120, 123], while higher education institutions were targeted 12 times in this period [p.124].


  • Ethiopia:

Ethiopia has been suffering from political-regional clashes among different governmental and non-state groups, such as the Central Government Troops, the Tigray People’s Liberation Front (TPLF), militias from the Amhara region, and others [p.126].

Attacks on schools committed by several different armed groups noticeably increased from 15 cases in the period 2018 to 2019 to 32 cases in the period from 2020 to 2021. Furthermore, almost 70 cases of schools used as military bases were identified by the GCPEA in 2020 and 2021. In addition, the GCPEA reported 14 incidents of proceeded attacks on higher education institutions during this period [p.129].


  • India:

Increasing political tension between India and Pakistan, as well as other domestic issues in India, have triggered some armed clashes and attacks in the country. In 2020 and 2021, attacks on students and teachers were reported in Jammu, Kashmir, and some eastern states more than 55 times according to GCPEA estimates. Attacks on schools included threatening, arresting, and detaining more than 1600 students and educators [p.131]. As for the military use of schools, the UN confirmed that a total of 7 schools were used for these purposes in 2020 [p.132].

The Covid-19 pandemic further exacerbated issues regarding the accessibility of education in India. The government’s measures to contain the virus and stop its spreading included shifting in-person teaching to remote education which resulted in severe negative effects on more than 290 million students [p.130]. Among other issues, many of these students did not have internet access to participate in online classes.

In the period from 2020 to 2021, students and higher education staff also encountered almost 65 attacks, 28 of which were committed by the government to suppress protests [p.133]. However, the reported number of incidents targeting higher education institutions was lower than in 2018 and 2019.


  • Iraq:

Iraqi educational institutions experienced an increasing number of attacks in the 2020 to 2021 period, some of which were committed by the Iraqi government itself. Several attacks targeted protestors who were demonstrating against corruption, the poor quality of public services, and low wages. In some regions of the country, teachers participated in the protests because of immense delays in receiving their wages. Multiple attacks targeted higher education students and staff too; altogether 10 cases were recognised by the GCPEA [p.137].

In 2020 and 2021, 11 attacks were reported by the GCPEA on schools used as polling centres in the Iraqi elections. Attacks were executed by planting explosive devices in schools or nearby them to disrupt the elections or to target police guarding the building [p.135]. Furthermore, the GCPEA reported the use of schools for military purposes on 33 occasions.


  • Kenya:

The decade-long conflict in the North-Eastern region of Kenya between the government and the Al Shabab Islamic fundamentalist armed group has spread instability across the country and negatively affected the education sector, among others.

Teachers were in particular danger in Kenya in 2020 and 2021, as the Al Shabab repeatedly attacked teachers who the group considered to be outsiders and/or Christians. This aggression led to the closing of hundreds of schools, thousands of teachers fled, while teachers originally from the area where the attacks occurred were transferred from the region. The GCPEA also recorded 5 incidents where the Al Shabab targeted students [p.139].

The GCPEA identified only 1 case of a school being used for military purposes between 2020 and 2021. However, attacks on higher education institutions reached a much higher number of 10 incidents [p.140]. These attacks were committed by the government which ordered the police to use teargas against protesters demonstrating against the government [p.141].


  • Libya:

In 2020, violent acts committed by non-state armed groups increasingly targeted schools and universities leading many of them to close which negatively affected more than 127,000 students. The GCPEA reported 22 attacks on schools in the period from 2020 to 2021, most of which were committed by shelling school buildings [p.142]. According to the UN, between 2019 and 2021 around 700 schools were closed because of conflict. Furthermore, 8 attacks on higher education institutions were reported by the GCPEA [p.144].


  • Mali:

Clashes between non-state armed groups, state forces, and international forces [p.145] continued in the 2020 to 2021 period in Mali, particularly in the northern, central, and southern territories of the country. In these 2 years, the hostility rate, and the number of victims dramatically increased: the GCPEA identified more than 620 attacks on educational facilities and teachers. Moreover, several cases of schools being used as military bases were reported by the GCPEA and the UN. There were also numerous cases of recruitment of children for armed conflict in schools which majorly reduced the willingness of parents to send their children to school [p.147].


  • Mozambique:

In 2020 and 2021, armed conflict continued between government forces, non-state armed groups, and the Al Shabab Islamic terrorist organisation in Mozambique. The GCPEA identified several cases of attacks on educational facilities, particularly in Delgado province, which has been the most affected by the conflict. Delgado experienced more than 100 violent attacks against schools, which led to the severe damage and destruction of educational institutions, leaving many children without access to education. However, schools in the rest of the country were not free from atrocities either: according to the UN, a minimum of 220 schools encountered violent attacks in 2021 in Mozambique [p.149]. Moreover, according to Human Rights Watch there have been incidents of kidnapping children and women, and enslaving them or sexually abusing them [p.148].


  • Myanmar:

The country witnessed severe political instability in the period from 2020 to 2021: a military coup overthrew the government, and in reaction to this, anti-coup protests began, while wide-scale strikes left the country in a state of chaos and insecurity.

According to the GCPEA, more than 200 attacks on schools took place, most of which included the use of explosive weapons, while using arson, bombing, and airstrikes were frequent too. Furthermore, students, teachers, and educational personnel were targeted in several attacks, while the GCPEA also confirmed more than 220 cases of schools and universities being used for military purposes [p.153].


  • Niger:

Conflict among several armed groups continued in Niger in 2020 and 2021, which significantly impacted the safety of the civilian population of the country. The western Tillabéri and Tahoua regions and the eastern Diffa region are the most affected by the conflict, which also affects the education sector. According to the GCPEA, more than 40 schools were attacked, threatened, or set on fire in 2020 and 2021 [p.156]. Students, teachers, and educational staff also faced violent atrocities on 17 reported occasions [p.157].


  • Nigeria:

Armed conflict among the state military forces, the Islamic State militias in West Africa Province, and other fragmented armed groups continued to be present in Nigeria in 2020 and 2021. The conflict seriously affected general safety in the country as well as the education sector, among others [p.159]. According to the GCPEA, 21 attacks on schools occurred in 2020 and 2021, and more than 1850 students, teachers, and educational personnel were injured, killed, or abducted. Since some of the injured or abducted students were relatives of “high-profile” personnel, the government developed stricter measures and closed more than 600 schools to prevent similar tragic incidents [p.160]. However, cases of abduction and murder targeting higher education staff and students also rose, which affected more than 100 people in 2020 and 2021 [p.162]. The GCPEA also reported multiple cases of sexual violence committed by all parties in the conflict, including state authorities, such as the police.


  • Pakistan:

Violent attacks targeting the education sector, as well as students, teachers, and educational staff, were committed by various actors in Pakistan. While the conflict of non-state armed groups significantly affected the education sector, the government did also stand behind some atrocities targeting protesting students and educational staff. More than 250 students, teachers, and educational staff were arrested in 2020 and 2021.

The GCPEA confirmed 7 attacks on schools by armed groups in the period from 2020 and 2021. One of these incidents was a bomb attack which injured more than 130 people and caused 7 deaths [p.164]. Moreover, higher education institutions were also terrorised: 18 attacks were reported by the GCPEA which resulted in the death of 4 female vocational trainers and the arrest of more than 140 students and staff members [p.166].


  • Palestine:

Clashes between Palestinian armed groups and the Israeli state authorities continued in 2020 and 2021. As a result of the conflict, 429 kindergartens, schools, and universities became victims of violent attacks according to the GCPEA. However large this number may seem, it is still less than the number of attacks committed in 2019, when the Coronavirus pandemic also severely affected the education sector [p.168].

The GCPEA reported at least 85 attacks on students and educational staff in the observed period. Intimidation, detention, and opening fire on unarmed school students and staff on the way to or from school were among the most common types of atrocities [p.171]. Furthermore, the GCPEA identified 19 attacks on higher education students, staff, and facilities too [p.173].


  • The Philippines:

The conflict between state forces and non-state armed groups continued in 2020 and 2021, as the Philippine government began a campaign to combat the spread and trade of illegal drugs. The armed clashes largely affected the education sector, among others, which prevented thousands of students from accessing appropriate education and educational facilities. The period from 2020 to 2021 showed a decline in the number of attacks targeting schools with only 8 attacks reported by the GCPEA, while, from 2017 to 2019, 62 attacks were recorded by the UN [p.175]. Students, teachers, and educational staff were also targeted on 5 different occasions and suffered from detention and shootings [p.176].


  • Somalia:

Somalia has been experiencing a series of crises in the forms of armed conflicts between non-state armed groups and international forces, political instability and poor general security, as well as natural crises, such as floods and the Covid-19 pandemic. While all of these issues severely affected the education sector, the armed conflicts were particularly damaging in 2020 and 2021, as they left over 3 million children without education. Moreover, different armed forces recruited more than 1716 boys to join fights, while many girls became victims of sexual violence [p.178].

In 2020 and 2021, the GCPEA confirmed 84 attacks on schools by using explosive weapons planted at or near schools [p.178]. Students, teachers, and educational personnel were also targeted on several occasions, and the GCPEA identified 146 abduction cases.


  • South Sudan:

Despite the peace agreement that was signed to settle the conflict between the government and oppositional groups and to facilitate the establishment of a transitional government, political tension continued to be present in South Sudan in 2020 and 2021. The conflict affected the education sector as well; the GCPEA identified 11 attacks in this period, which, however, were fewer than the 18 attacks committed in the period from 2018 to 2019 [p.180]. A similar declining pattern can be observed in the number of schools used for military purposes: in 2020 and 2021, only 10 cases were reported, while 35 incidents occurred in 2018 and 2019 [p.181]. Furthermore, in 2020 and 2021, the GCPEA reported an attack on a higher education facility while another targeted university students [p.182].


  • Sudan:

Sudan experienced political transitions in 2020 and 2021 which severely affected general safety in the country. In reaction to several issues regarding both the oppressive Sudani government and the education system, such as the lack of suitable facilities for disabled students, widespread protests started among students, teachers, and educational personnel in 2021. The government decided to apply harsh measures to suppress the uprisings: protesters were targeted in 6 attacks in the form of detention and the use of teargas according to the GCPEA.

However, not only armed conflicts disturbed the education sector in Sudan: the spread of Covid-19, natural disasters, such as floods damaging 559 schools, and food insecurity severely affected children’s education. These disasters lead to millions being in need of humanitarian assistance, and most of the victims were children according to the UN.


  • Syria:

As armed conflicts continue in Syria between non-state armed groups and government forces, schools still suffer numerous attacks all around the country. However, the intensity of these attacks declined in 2020 and 2021: this period recorded 85 attacks on schools according to the GCPEA, which is a significant decrease compared to the 260 recorded incidents in the previous 2 years. Most of the attacks in 2020 and 2021 occurred in the forms of shelling and air strikes in northwest Syria, in Aleppo and Idlib [p.186], however, Damascus, Homs, Al Hasaka, Deir-Ez-Zor, and Quneitra were also largely affected [p.187]. In addition, over 35 cases of schools and universities used for military purposes were reported [p.190]. Furthermore, the GCPEA also reported 17 incidents targeting students, teachers, and educational personnel, who were victims of intimidation, threats, arrests, and detention [p.188, 189].


  • Thailand:

Instability continued to be present in Thailand due to the non-state armed groups in the southern provinces of the country, putting people’s lives at risk. The GCPEA identified 5 attacks on schools in 2020 and 2021, while 6 attacks were reported targeting students, teachers, and educational personnel. While the exact number of attacks on schools did not change compared to the 2018 to 2019 period, attacks on students and teachers have decreased compared to previous years [p.192, 193].

In addition, atrocities targeting students and education staff have also been committed by state authorities. In the 2020 to 2021 period, the Thai police arrested students who protested against the education minister for his incompetence in preventing and appropriately handling cases of harassment and beatings in schools and kindergartens.


  • Turkey:

Since the 2016 coup in Turkey, several sectors, such as the media, business, and education sectors have faced drastic changes. The Turkish government has been targeting institutions, platforms, and people, who have any real or claimed connection to an Islamic scholar and American Turkish millionaire, Fetullah Gülen, who the government accuses of standing behind the coup. The education sector has particularly been affected by the government’s purges: schools and universities were shut down, thousands of teachers lost not only their jobs but also their teacher certificates, and academics have been imprisoned for alleged connections to the Gülen Movement.

In 2020 and 2021, the GCPEA confirmed 3 attacks on schools [p.194], while school students, teachers, and education personnel were also attacked on 3 occasions. Using schools for military purposes reached a minimum of 7 cases which indicates an increase compared to previous years [p.195]. One case of sexual violence was also confirmed by the GCPEA in the 2020 to 2021 period. As for attacks on higher educational institutions, a total of 30 incidents were reported resulting in the injury or arrest of more than 600 university students. Most of these attacks and arrests targeted students, teachers, and educational staff who were participating in education-related protests [p.196].


  • Ukraine:

The eastern part of the country experienced shelling and small armed clashes on several occasions in 2020 and 2021. These attacks resulted in the destruction of several schools: 30 attacks were identified by the GCPEA in that period, which damaged a total of 25 schools. The number of attacks shows an increase compared to the 2018 to 2019 period [p.198].

As for attacks on students, teachers, and educational personnel, 5 incidents were identified by the GCPEA in 2020 and 2021. This number marks a decrease compared to incidents reported from 2018 to 2019, which were a total of 15 cases [p.199].


  • Yemen:

The intensity of the conflict in Yemen increased in 2020 and 2021 and clashes between state forces and non-state armed groups escalated. The GCPEA reported 48 attacks on schools in that period, in the form of air strikes, shelling, and the use of explosives [p.200]. As for attacks on students, teachers, and education staff, the GCPEA reported 13 large-scale cases one of which included the abduction and assault of more than 100 students and teachers [p.201].

The rate of using schools and universities for military purposes was particularly high as 49 of these cases were reported by the GCPEA in the 2020 to 2021 period. Furthermore, the GCPEA identified 20 schools where armed groups were recruiting and training children for fighting [p.203]. The GCPEA also identified 10 cases of attacks on higher education facilities and 14 attacks targeting higher education students and teachers [p.204].


Written by:

Noor Mousa 13/07/2022

Edited by:

Johanna Farkas

[i] Education Under Attack. Global Coalition to Protect Education from Attack. 2022.

Albania’s Enlargement Package: Education as a Keystone for Accession to the EU

As Albania continues its path of accession to the European Union (EU), the European Commission annually assesses its readiness for full EU integration. This process is called the enlargement package and is ongoing for all of the Western Balkans and Türkiye regions. In the 2021-22 enlargement package, the European Commission pledged to accelerate the integration of the Western Balkans as a whole, including Albania. The European Commission’s Albania 2022 Report (hereafter, “the Report”) details Albania’s many positive reforms, but also identifies many areas that are still below EU standards. Several of these areas affect and interact with education policy; some even explicitly derive from the Albanian education system. With a critical lens focused on education and human rights, this article will summarize and explore the Report’s findings and recommendations on Albania. Firstly, this article will focus on Albania’s readiness for EU accession before diving into the primary political and economic concerns.

Secondly, the education system as described in the Report, including its shortcomings regarding COVID-19, technological capacity, and minority incorporation. Finally, the current state of the rights of the child in Albania will be discussed.



  1. Political Concerns

Many areas of the Report may not directly impact education or human rights but are still worth noting to contextualize Albania’s current political climate. Overall, the Report finds that Albania is “moderately prepared” for integration. The Parliamentary elections in 2021 revealed significant internal conflicts within the largest opposition party (DP) as well as the gridlock that characterizes the Albanian Parliament. The Report notes that these untimely and unfortunate barriers to consensus resulted in Parliament delaying and even abandoning certain reforms that would have furthered EU criteria, notably including electoral reform. Ultimately, the Parliament found common ground on several critical issues, passing nine laws aimed at EU integration.


Albania is also suffering from economic and political consequences associated with the triple shock of the 2019 earthquake, the COVID-19 pandemic, and, more recently, Russia’s war of aggression against Ukraine. In particular, public administration remains in disarray as the establishment of agencies subordinate to the Prime Minister without a comprehensive framework detailing their purpose and limits raises questions concerning the standards of public administration. Nonetheless, Albania is making progress in public administrative reform, anti-corruption reform, the fight against organized crime, judicial reform, and migration. Although it is moderately prepared in economic criteria and competitive growth, it is still below EU standards and struggles to manage fiscal policy. This is a special concern given that Albania needs to generate and appropriately manage a more diversified revenue in order to implement the large expenditures necessary for adequate public and social services, as further explored below.


  1. Economic Concerns: Educational Funding and Employment

The Report notes that Albania is not fully prepared for the competitive pressure of the EU job market, but it is making advancements to this effect. Albania made progress through the National Strategy of Education and Action Plan 2021-2026, but a lack of financing has impeded this Plan—only an estimated 3.6% of GDP was directed toward this Plan. The funding of education is significantly below Albania’s needs. The allocated budget for the main ministries responsible for education, among other social services, remains below 1% of GDP. Individual schools lack financial autonomy and remain vulnerable to corruption. Anti-corruption measures that have recently resulted in criminal prosecutions of some high-level officials have had little effect on social services, including healthcare and education.


These financial issues are particularly acute because Albania heavily lacks human capital. Notably, human capital acquisition continues to be stifled by skill and education gaps, especially in technological and entrepreneurial know-how. This area is a blend of skilled labor and academic theory, and thus an area that would require greater communication and collaboration between the discrete institutions within the broader education system. The Report notes that “[e]fforts are still needed in the development of innovative policies aimed at promoting better links between academia, industry and government….” Albania is engaged in many projects to further human capital acquisition, including the Horizon 2021 program, the EUREKA network, and the “EU for Innovation” Tirana project, but few are producing results. The Report emphasizes that Albania will not be able to accede to the EU without improving its human capital gains. Among other reasons, the Albanian job market in its current state would be shocked after integration by the high human capital present in other EU countries. The resulting shocks would depress the employment of native Albanians and incentivize native Albanians to seek education in other EU member states.


Graduates and post-graduates in Albania are entering a recovering job market. Employment growth is steadily advancing after the COVID-19 economic downturn. However, the gender gap in employment remains wide. Structural changes in the labor market also reflect the increased need for graduates with higher education; the unemployment rate of tertiary educated persons dropped markedly, while it increased for workers with primary education and persons 15-24. These market distortions incentivize young people and other primary-educated people to seek higher education in order to increase their value in the job market. This dynamic is already taking shape, as the share of people aged 20-24 in tertiary education programs has increased from 12.3% in 2016 to 14.9% in 2022. However, as more young people seek an academic lifestyle, fewer seek vocational training, leading to shortages in skilled labor. These shortages contribute to higher pay for skilled laborers, thus incentivizing young people to seek labor-intensive jobs. These two competing incentives—the first for higher education and the second for skilled labor—create skill mismatches in Albania’s labor market as some workers with higher education are seeking more lucrative jobs in skilled labor, and vice versa.


Many youths without skills or education continue to struggle; the percentage of young people neither employed nor in education or training was 26.1% in 2021. To attempt to give direction to many of these young people, Albania created the Youth Guarantee scheme to give advice to and coordinate opportunities for floundering Albanian young people. In February 2022, the Parliament established an inter-ministerial working group to oversee the implementation of the Youth Guarantee scheme, including by allocating human and financial resources seconded from the ministries themselves. The Report again emphasizes the importance of incorporating these youth into the formal job market either through education or skills training in order to build human capital in anticipation of EU accession.

Tiran Univercity
Polytechnic University of Tirana – Source Wikipedia

The Education System

  1. Basic Characteristics and Current Initiatives

In 2021, Albania implemented a new competence-based curriculum for the grades 1-12 pre-university education system. Of 286,486 students currently enrolled, 260,953 received free textbooks under this new initiative. For reference, 158,528 students are in primary education, and 127,958 are in lower secondary education. The simultaneous attempt at preschool reform was not successful, however. Due to a lack of resources, the new policies passed for preschools could not be implemented. The Report notes that partnerships with local authorities are essential to ensure cooperation and avoid disrupting the everyday goings on in schools as new standards begin.


Albania’s Vocational Education and Training (VET) system is also being revised. Participation in the VET scheme remains low, with only 17.7% of upper secondary students enrolled in 2021 (18,279 out of a total of 103,467). In 2017, Parliament adopted a VET Law that established the National Agency for VET and Qualifications and attempted to standardize VET programs. The implementation of this Law is not yet complete, however. The National Agency requires further organizational clarification, especially in the human resources department. Legislation regarding VET providers is also lacking. The Report states that Parliament must adopt a law guaranteeing the financial autonomy of VET providers in addition to the Optimisation Plan endorsed by Parliament and VET providers in 2020. Both legislative efforts would require certain standards of learning and training, organizational strategies, functions, and activities from VET providers while simultaneously allowing them the independence to determine how to achieve these measures. In other words, these legislative efforts would regulate the VET providers while ensuring their discretionary rights and privileges. The Report states that this VET scheme must be implemented by 2023 to ensure the modernization of the VET.


  1. COVID-19

2021-2022 was a “year of adjustment and planning” after the shocks caused by the 2019 earthquake and the COVID-19 pandemic. The earthquake sent the education system into immediate turmoil as 21,000 children from 11 municipalities were forced to move to host schools or temporary facilities. Students attended classes in shifts, thereby straining already scarce resources, negatively impacting the quality of teaching, and negatively affecting students’ capacity to absorb information amid a stressful and constantly changing environment. 87 schools damaged by the earthquake have returned to normal operations. The problems derived from the earthquake are distinct from the problems that arose under COVID-19, but both exposed the same skills and resource gaps in the education system.


Already struggling with remote, hybrid, or part-time school due to the earthquake, teachers and students were forced to revert to fully online methods for which they were not prepared. Prior to the earthquake, most teachers had never even received IT training, much less training on how to effectively teach an entirely digital class—many were technologically illiterate. Albania began training 2,362 teachers on digitization in 2021, but this excluded the majority of a total of 30,000 teachers in need. This skills gap was compounded by a lack of digital resources available to both teachers and students for a free or reduced cost. Albania provides only one computer per 26 students, which is inadequate to ensure that all students have access to digital education. The Report compares this to the EU average of one computer per five pupils. As a result of these complications, enrollment rates 2019-2021 dropped considerably to 72.9%. Even more concerningly, enrollment in preschool education for children aged five to six decreased by 9%. The Report states that even as the COVID-19 pandemic eases, the government should continue to provide digital training to teachers and technological literacy courses to students in anticipation of a future emergency.


  • Minority Incorporation

On the flip side, changes to the education system related to the COVID-19 pandemic have generated increased inclusion of vulnerable populations, most notably Roma and Egyptian minorities. These groups suffer from a lack of access to certain socioeconomic benefits, lower income levels, and structural barriers to upward mobility. Strategies such as distance learning, remote teaching, and part-time education aligned with these groups’ needs by leaving room for flexibility in scheduling. This allowed parents of lower school children to guarantee their children’s quality of education even while struggling with the economic downturn. Similarly, this allowed older students to maintain their employment and living standards while simultaneously accessing higher education. As COVID-19 has dissipated, schools have reduced many of these measures. The enrollment rates of Rome and Egyptian children in pre-university and early childhood education have dropped. Inclusion efforts include scholarships, free textbooks, complimentary transportation, and part-time education programs. Measures that, in theory, facilitate Roma and Egyptian access to universities, such as a quota system and fee waivers for university applications, are generally not enforced in practice.


Nonetheless, the Report emphasizes that the inclusion of vulnerable populations within the Albanian education system is lacking. Some schools continue to segregate Roma and Egyptian children, resulting in a ruling from the European Court of Human Rights in May 2022 ordering the Ministry of Education and Sports to implement desegregation policies. Roma and Egyptian graduates are systematically discriminated against in the workforce as well. The low employment rate of these groups worsened due to COVID-19, health insurance coverage for these groups is sparse, and the digitization of many public services during COVID-19 (including healthcare and employment) impeded technologically illiterate members of these groups from accessing much-needed protection.


Ethnic minorities are not the only groups discriminated against in public service delivery, however. The Report notes that “no progress” has been made with regard to the incorporation of disabled persons in the Albanian education system. Already scarce resources are simply not being allocated to solve this problem. Teachers and other educational professionals receive slim to no training on the complex challenges and functional strategies of including disabled persons, alternative methods of teaching, or early detection of disability. Those teaching assistants qualified to assist disabled students are very few and not sufficiently dispersed throughout educational institutions. The Report highlights that “additional efforts are also needed to shift from a system with dual education towards a system where children with disabilities are integrated into inclusive mainstream schools.”


Written by Rowan Scarpinoagainst LGBTIQ persons is also rampant in Albania. A lack of knowledge and awareness about queerness and queer rights, especially in rural areas, drives high levels of intolerance. Physical aggression and hate speech, particularly on social media against LGBTIQ people are routine. This creates a hostile environment for LGBTIQ students in schools, thus disincentivizing them from engaging with the curriculum or creating bonds with teachers and other students. Further, discrimination prevents LGBTIQ students from fully accessing future educational opportunities, such as higher education, thus depressing their capacity to enter high-paying employment. Generally, LGBTIQ persons face discrimination in public services, including barriers to healthcare and housing. Albania lacks legislation authorizing cohabitation or same-sex marriage, thus perpetuating the social stigmatization of LGBTIQ persons. In November 2021, Albania did implement a new 2021-2027 action plan for LBGTIQ persons. However, Parliament has failed to implement the policies associated with this plan due to a lack of financing and political will. The Report stresses that Parliament must enact this action plan and other inclusive policies in order for Albania to meet EU criteria governing fundamental rights and freedoms.


Rights of the Child

Albania ratified the Convention on the Rights of the Child in 1992 and has since implemented a legal framework protecting children. The Report notes that progress continues in institutional capacity-building to effectively execute the Convention. However, malnutrition and physical activity continue to be critical issues for children and pregnant women in Albania. The Report recommends that Albania develop a national nutrition plan that includes an awareness campaign in schools and community centers. Additionally, Albania remains a “country of origin, transit, and destination” of human trafficking. Institutionalized and minority children, including Roma and Egyptians, are more vulnerable to trafficking than adults or their peers. Fortunately, the number of Albanian victims significantly decreased in 2020-2021, but this may be due only to border closures associated with COVID-19.


The Report also finds that “the practice of child marriage still exists, and is primarily driven by gender inequality, poverty and social exclusion.” Because of a lack of official data, it is unclear how prevalent child marriage is, but laws protecting adolescents from child marriage are clearly ineffective or applied inconsistently. To remedy this fundamentally abusive practice, the government addressed child marriage in the national policy framework in 2021 for the first time in history. It continued to prioritize the issue by enacting the 2021-26 National Agenda for the Rights of the Child. Further, the Albanian National Deinstitutionalization Plan allocated funds to develop childcare services as an alternative to institutionalized social care, which has violated and exploited children. Despite this progress, violence against children, especially sexual violence, remains a problem. Child Protection Units received 2,389 cases of children in need of protection in 2021; a large amount made even more difficult by the lack of child protection workers. Albania needs programs and legal frameworks that prioritize social work and incentivize students to become social workers.



Overall, Albania could advance its moderate level of preparation in most EU accession criteria to the next level by increasing its focus on education. In order to meet economic standards, for example, skills and resource gaps must be remedied through higher and vocational education. Similarly, in order to meet standards relating to respect for fundamental rights and freedoms and social cohesion, Albania must increase the incorporation of minorities into society and formal markets, which begins with the incorporation of minority and migrant children into education. The list goes on; the areas in which Albania is most unprepared for EU accession, including public administration and economic competitiveness, all negatively impact the education system and yet can be solved through increasing funding, awareness, and participation in the education system. In preparation for the next enlargement package report, Albania should engage in educational reform to accelerate its preparedness for EU integration.



Written by Rowan Scarpino


European Commission. (2022). (rep. num. SWD(2022) 332). Albania 2022 Report. Brussels, Belgium.


La Fédération de Russie elle-même est un État relativement récent. Elle a été créée il y a 30 ans, après la dissolution de l’Union soviétique. La Russie a un contexte historique, social et culturel unique, avec un mélange d’impérialisme, d’influence soviétique et de 30 ans d’histoire moderne. Toutes ces différentes périodes ont eu un impact sur le système éducatif. Il y a eu de nombreuses tentatives de réforme du système éducatif après la dissolution de l’Union soviétique. Parmi les plus importantes, on peut citer les innovations de la loi fédérale de 1992 “sur l’éducation”, notamment la possibilité d’avoir des écoles privées, de nouveaux manuels scolaires et l’autonomie financière des écoles (Dashchinskaya, 1997) ; la signature en 2003 de la déclaration de Bologne, qui marque le début d’un espace éducatif européen unifié dans certains établissements russes ; et l’introduction de tests standardisés nationaux, obligatoires depuis 2009 (Tsyrlina-Spady, 2016).

Selon un expert en éducation, des changements fondamentaux sont apparus avec les réformes de 2009-2010 et l’émission d’une nouvelle loi directive (On Education in the Russian Federation, 2012). Les réformes cruciales comprenaient le financement des écoles par élève, de nouveaux tests standardisés pour les diplômés des écoles et les étudiants de première année de collège, la priorisation de la proximité de l’école dans le processus d’admission, la création et la durabilité d’environnements scolaires sûrs, la promotion de l’éducation inclusive, et la fermeture progressive des établissements d’enseignement spécialisés.

Photo by Oleksandr P: 

Des changements aussi réussis que l’investissement constant dans l’éducation, la création d’un système d’évaluation national et l’inclusion des scores obtenus comme principaux indicateurs pour l’admission à l’université (offrant un accès égal aux universités pour tous les adolescents, y compris les familles à faible revenu et les personnes provenant de régions éloignées), la couverture presque universelle de l’éducation préscolaire et le financement par habitant. Ces changements ont permis aux étudiants russes de dépasser les résultats de l’étude TIMSS (Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study) pour 2019, qui, lors de sa publication, montrait la Russie en tête du classement après les économies d’Asie de l’Est (Shmis, 2021). Néanmoins, l’objectif de cet article est de faire la lumière sur certains des problèmes les plus urgents au sein du secteur éducatif russe.

Les défis de l’éducation inclusive

Plusieurs types de défis entravent la réalisation de l’éducation inclusive. Tout d’abord, il n’y a pas assez de spécialistes qui possèdent les compétences et l’expertise nécessaires pour travailler avec des enfants ayant des besoins spéciaux. Une étude menée dans la région fédérale de l’Oural a mis en évidence qu’environ 60% des personnes interrogées ont noté l’absence de personnel hautement spécialisé (psychologues, pédagogues sociaux, tuteurs, etc.), en particulier dans les écoles des petites villes et des zones rurales (Grunt, 2019). Deuxièmement, il n’y a pas assez de matériel. Bien que la plupart des écoles inclusives disposent aujourd’hui d’ascenseurs, de rampes, de portes élargies, de panneaux en braille et d’un accompagnement sonore, il y a un manque de matériel éducatif et méthodologique pour enseigner aux enfants ayant des besoins spéciaux (Mironova, Smolina, Novgorodtseva 2019). Troisièmement, la bureaucratie autour de l’éducation est particulièrement pesante en ce qui concerne l’éducation inclusive. La répartition du pouvoir et des responsabilités entre les enseignants, les tuteurs, les psychologues ou les travailleurs sociaux peut constituer un obstacle à la conclusion d’accords. Enfin, il existe un énorme fossé en matière de communication, de collaboration et d’interaction adéquate entre les enseignants et les parents, entre les enfants avec et sans besoins de santé particuliers. Les conflits de valeurs deviennent apparents lorsque les classes sont mélangées avec des enfants handicapés et. Malheureusement, les acteurs impliqués dans les activités éducatives ne sont pas toujours disposés à comprendre les changements survenus au cours des dernières années.

Un déclin du prestige des collèges professionnels et techniques

La tendance généralisée à l’obtention d’un diplôme d’enseignement supérieur est sans aucun doute bénéfique pour la société ; cependant, toute médaille a deux faces. Dans le cas de la Fédération de Russie, cette tendance a entraîné une sursaturation du marché du travail en spécialistes ayant suivi un enseignement supérieur. Cela a, à son tour, diminué le prestige des collèges professionnels et techniques et a entraîné un manque de spécialistes techniques ou de travailleurs ayant une formation professionnelle secondaire (Ivanova, 2016). La Russie a l’un des taux d’accès à l’enseignement supérieur les plus élevés parmi les membres de l’OCDE, comme l’illustre le graphique 1 ci-dessous (OCDE, 2019). Malgré la baisse des niveaux de prestige des études professionnelles, les programmes professionnels restent relativement plus répandus que dans les autres pays de l’OCDE.

Ressource : OCDE. (2019). Regards sur l’éducation 2019 : note par pays. OCDE.

Augmentation des investissements résultant des nouveaux défis du système éducatif.

Pour accroître la qualité de l’éducation russe, de nouveaux investissements sont nécessaires. La Russie offre une grande infrastructure numérique, de sorte que la numérisation et la création de plateformes éducatives adaptées ne sont qu’une question d’investissements supplémentaires et d’efforts de collaboration. Il est crucial de s’adapter à l’évolution des modalités d’enseignement, comme les régimes hybrides et en ligne, pendant la pandémie de COVID-19. L’introduction de méthodes d’enseignement et d’apprentissage uniques augmentera la motivation et l’engagement des étudiants dans le processus.

Enseigner le développement de compétences dans la vie réelle

Après la participation des élèves russes à l’évaluation PISA des compétences en matière de résolution collaborative de problèmes (2015), l’écart négatif le plus important a été constaté entre les résultats en mathématiques, en sciences et en lecture (tests fondamentaux de PISA) et la capacité des élèves à résoudre des problèmes de manière collaborative (Shmis, 2021). Comme il s’agit de l’une des compétences modernes vitales, de nouvelles réformes devraient être adaptées pour introduire de nouveaux aspects du travail collaboratif dans les écoles et en faire un centre d’obtention de nouvelles connaissances et de maîtrise des compétences nécessaires au monde moderne.

By Elizaveta Rusakova

Translated by Serena Bassi

Références :

الغزو الروسي لأوكرانيا و تأثيره على التعليم

 كتب محمود درويش ذات مرة عن الحرب:
“ستنتهي الحرب. سوف يتصافح القادة. ستظل المرأة العجوز تنتظر ابنها الشهيد. تلك الفتاة ستنتظر زوجها الحبيب. وهؤلاء الأطفال سينتظرون والدهم البطل. لا أعرف من باع وطننا ولكني رأيت من دفع الثمن” [1]
على مر السنين، دمرت الحرب والديكتاتورية العديد من البلدان. كثير من هذه البلدان كانت متحضرة بدرجة كافية قبل أن تدمرها الحرب؛ مليئة بالثقافة والتنمية والحضارة، مثل سوريا وفلسطين وليبيا وأفغانستان والعراق والصومال واليمن وغيرها الكثير.
طمع وأنانية الديكتاتوريين والسياسيين الفاسدين لم يتسببوا في شيء سوى الخسارة لهذه البلدان و فقد العديد من الأبرياء أرواحهم. إن العديد من البلدان تعاني من الفقر نتيجة الحكم السيئ من قبل الأنظمة القمعية. انهارت البنى التحتية الوطنية بسبب الحرب، كما تأثرت البيئة بشكل كبير.

 مشروع تكاليف الحرب، معهد واتسون للشؤون الدولية والعامة، جامعة براون ٢٠٢١

انضمت أوكرانيا الآن إلى قطار البلدان التي دمرتها الحرب بسبب جشع الديكتاتوريين. لم يقم فلاديمير بوتين بغزو دولة مجاورة ذات سيادة فحسب، بل إن نظامه يمارس الرقابة الكاملة داخل الأراضي الروسية.
وسائل الإعلام الروسية المستقلة والصحفيون الذين يتحدثون علانية ضد نظام بوتين وعن عناء الروس تحت قيادته يتعرضون للمضايقة والترهيب والاعتقال الغير القانوني. ويتم التعامل مع المحتجين المعارضين لبوتين والجرائم التي ارتكبها نظامه في أوكرانيا بهمج، مثل إجبار الشباب الروس على الانضمام إلى القوات المسلحة دون علمهم بأنهم سيشاركون في غزو أوكرانيا. كل هذا يصف بشكل جيد كيف تبدو “الدولة الشمولية”.

كيف تأثر التعليم؟
إن تأثير الحرب واضح للعيان في قطاع التعليم، حيث اتاحة التعليم محدودة بسبب النقص في الموارد التعليمية. ويلعب الفقر دورًا كبيرًا في نقص التعليم، وانتشار الدعاية من الطغاة لتبرير الغزو أو إلى تبرير جرائم الديكتاتوريين المرتكبة ضد مواطنيهم. تعرضت العديد من المرافق التعليمية مثل المدارس ورياض الأطفال للتدمير والتلف بسبب الحرب المستمرة في أوكرانيا التي تصدى مستقبل الأطفال في البلاد للخطر وتتركهم محرومين من التعليم. [2]
نشرت اليونيسف مؤخرًا تقريرًا بشأن تأثير الغزو الروسي على أوكرانيا. ووفقًا للتقرير، فقد ترك الغزو أكثر من ٣٥٠ ألف طفل في المدارس دون إمكانية الوصول إلى التعليم. و هذا بسبب تضرر أو دمار البنية التحتية للمدارس، و مناهج التدريس الغير كافية تحد من الوصول إلى التعليم مما يترك الأطفال دون غذاء أو مأوى أو تعليم. [3]

تأثير الحرب على اللاجئين الأوكرانيين والطلاب الأجانب في أوكرانيا:
لجأ العديد من الأوكرانيين إلى بلدان مختلفة منذ بداية الحرب. كان هناك الكثير من القلق بشأن اللاجئين الأطفال وكيفية دمجهم في الأنظمة المدرسية في البلدان الأخرى خاصة مع حواجز اللغة. و لكن كانت هناك استجابة إيجابية لهذه التحديات، حيث رحبت المدارس في بولندا بالأطفال اللاجئين الأوكرانيين في مدارسهم، ويقدم المعلمون البولنديون المساعدة لهؤلاء الطلاب للتغلب على حاجز اللغة والتكيف مع النظام التعليمي البولندي [4]. من ناحية أخرى، يواجه الأطفال اللاجئون الأوكرانيون في المملكة المتحدة تحدي اخر، حيث أن معظم المدارس في المملكة المتحدة التي تستقبل طلابًا جددًا تتجاوز قدرتها و مداركها. إضافة إلى ذلك، فإن التمويل الغير كافي لقطاع التعليم يضع المدارس تحت ضغط كبير ويؤدي إلى رفض الطلاب اللاجئين. [5]

الطلاب الدوليون الذين كانوا يدرسون في الجامعات الأوكرانية وكثيرهم من أفريقيا وجنوب آسيا والشرق الأوسط، أيضًا ضحايا الحرب المستمرة. لم يتمكن الكثير منهم من استكمال دراستهم واضطروا للهروب إلى بلدان أخرى على أمل أن يتمكنوا من العودة إلى أوكرانيا قريبًا وإكمال دراستهم. [6] لقد كافح العديد من هؤلاء الطلاب الأجانب في الواقع للعثور على ملجأ أو الفرار والأكثر رعباً، قتل اثنان على الأقل من الطلاب الزائرين في الأيام الأولى من الحرب. [7]

تأثير الحرب على دول ما بعد الاتحاد السوفيتي وروسيا:
منذ الغزو الروسي لأوكرانيا، كان هناك تخوف من مواطني دول ما بعد الاتحاد السوفيتي من وصول سيطرة بوتين إلى بلدانهم خاصة بعد توقيع الرئيس الأذربيجاني إلهام علييف اتفاقية تحالف بين روسيا وأذربيجان. تتضمن الاتفاقية المكونة من ٤٣ نقطة تحالفًا تعليميًا واقتصاديًا من شأنه زيادة سيطرة نظام بوتين في أذربيجان. [8] [9] على سبيل المثال، ستصبح اللغة الروسية إلزامية في المؤسسات التعليمية أكثر مما كانت عليه سابقًا في دول ما بعد الاتحاد السوفيتي. في الآونة الأخيرة، بدأت وزارة التعليم الروسية في نشر الدعاية في التعليم عبر الإنترنت، محاولة في التأثير على الأطفال الذين لديهم ميول لأيديولوجيات تمجد قيادة بوتين وتبرير غزو روسيا لأوكرانيا. تحاول هذه الدروس عبر الإنترنت شرح “لماذا كانت مهمة التحرير في أوكرانيا ضرورية”.[11] تشكل هذه الدروس خطرا لمساهمتها في خلق جيل يشجع على الحرب و يدعم الديكتاتورية في روسيا و يشكل تهديدًا لمستقبل المجتمع الروسي.

بالتأكيد سيأتي يوم تنتهي فيه الحرب ويعود النازحون إلى أوطانهم حيث تركوا أحبائهم بحثًا عن ملاذ في أراض أخرى. سوف يتصافح القادة لإحلال السلام في العالم، ولكن بأي ثمن بعدما هذا القدر من الضرر؟ كما يقول محمود درويش “لا أعرف من باع وطننا لكني رأيت من دفع الثمن”.
بقلم زينات أسدوفا
ترجمة رويفة الريامية من



  1. “The war will end” Poem by Mahmud Darwish
  2. Save the Children. (2022). Ukraine: Attacks on schools endangering children’s lives and futures. Retrieved from
  3. UNICEF Europe & Central Asia Region (ECAR). (2022). Ukraine Situation Report – 24 February 2022 (p. 2). Retrieved from
  4. Deutsche Welle (DW). (2022). Poland fights to give Ukrainian kids access to education [Video]. Retrieved from,Poland’s%20education%20system%20is%20enormous.
  5. Abrams, F. (2022). Ukraine refugees may struggle to find places in English schools, councils say. The Guardian. Retrieved from
  6. Fallon, K. (2022). Foreign students fleeing Russia’s war on Ukraine hope to return. Retrieved from
  7. International education’s continuing response to the war in Ukraine. ICEF Monitor – Market intelligence for international student recruitment. (2022). Retrieved from
  8. Azərbaycan Respublikası Xarici İşlər Nazirliyi. (2022). No:056/22, Azərbaycan Respublikası Xarici İşlər Nazirliyinin Mətbuat xidməti idarəsinin məlumatı (AZ/RU). Retrieved from
  9. President of the Republic of Azerbaijan Ilham Aliyev. (2022). Declaration on allied interaction between the Republic of Azerbaijan and the Russian Federation. Retrieved from
  10. Aliyeva, J. (2022). Azerbaijani president notes importance of Russian language. Report News Agency. Retrieved from
  11. Russia’s Ministry of Education Official Page on Vkontakte. (2022). An Open lesson “Defenders of Peace” (Открытый урок «Защитники мира») [Video].


Communiqué de presse : JOURNÉE DES DROITS HUMAINS 2022

10 décembre 2022

Communiqué de presse : JOURNÉE DES DROITS HUMAINS 2022

“Faciliter le droit à l’éducation contribuera à faciliter d’autres droits humains”

Ce 10 décembre, Broken Chalk souhaite non seulement célébrer le 74ème anniversaire de la Déclaration universelle des droits de l’homme, mais aussi réfléchir aux nombreux défis et succès auxquels la communauté des droits de l’homme a été confrontée cette année. Comme toujours, la mission de Broken Chalk est aujourd’hui de faire connaître l’importance de l’éducation dans l’actualisation des droits de l’homme. Malgré la multiplicité des avancées en matière de droits de l’homme dans le monde, la pauvreté, la violence systématique et institutionnelle, la discrimination et la corruption continuent d’empêcher les enfants et les jeunes adultes de réaliser pleinement leur droit à l’éducation. En ce début d’année 2023, il convient de réfléchir aux politiques que les nations et la communauté internationale devraient adopter pour favoriser une éducation de qualité accessible à tous.

En 2022, l’un des plus grands obstacles empêchant cette éducation reste le financement. Les établissements d’enseignement du monde entier continuent de manquer d’infrastructures sûres, d’eau potable, de fournitures suffisantes, de livres et d’autres matériels pédagogiques. Les éducateurs reçoivent rarement un salaire décent alors qu’ils effectuent l’un des travaux les plus essentiels d’une société. Cette crise du financement s’aggrave à mesure que l’inflation mondiale augmente. Lorsque l’économie décline, les gouvernements resserrent les budgets de l’éducation, ce qui réduit encore la qualité de l’enseignement dispensé. Dans le même temps, les familles ont besoin de plus de revenus, ce qui fait que davantage d’enfants abandonnent l’école pour travailler. Ces deux faits se renforcent mutuellement ; si la qualité de l’éducation reçue par un enfant diminue, les familles qui effectuent une analyse coûts-avantages sont plus susceptibles de privilégier le travail à l’école, car le travail présente une valeur plus immédiate. Cela peut avoir des effets durables ; une main-d’œuvre non éduquée peut faire baisser les salaires pour tous, ce qui creuse les inégalités de revenus et exacerbe la pauvreté. Pour éviter ce cercle vicieux, nous devons rappeler à nos décideurs politiques – nationaux et internationaux – que l’éducation est un droit humain essentiel auquel il faut allouer des fonds suffisants.

Un autre problème auquel se heurte l’accessibilité et la qualité de l’éducation est la prévalence croissante des conflits internes. En raison des pratiques injustes d’application de la loi utilisées par le gouvernement actuel en Turquie, des enseignants ont été exposés à la torture, emprisonnés et ont perdu la vie. Entre la violence en Iran, les coups d’État répétés au Burkina Faso, l’invasion de l’Ukraine, la cristallisation du pouvoir des talibans en Afghanistan et les conflits en cours en Éthiopie, en Syrie, au Yémen, au Myanmar et dans bien d’autres pays, 2022 n’a pas mis fin à bon nombre des conflits les plus aigus du monde. Dans les zones de conflit, la réalisation du droit à l’éducation est confrontée à des défis presque insurmontables. La menace constante de la violence empêche toute éducation, d’autant plus que les établissements scolaires sont fréquemment pris pour cible par les groupes armés insurgés. Les familles subissent de lourdes pertes, qu’il s’agisse de la perte de vies humaines, de membres de la famille, de revenus ou de leur maison, et peuvent même devenir des réfugiés ou des personnes déplacées à l’intérieur du pays. Il est essentiel de consolider les efforts d’aide humanitaire pour garantir que certains services éducatifs de base continuent d’être fournis même pendant les conflits. À bien des égards, l’éducation est un médicament efficace pour prévenir les conflits avant qu’ils ne se produisent et pour traiter les conséquences sociales des conflits après qu’ils se soient produits. L’éducation est essentielle à la construction de la cohésion sociale et offre un moyen non violent d’exprimer et de promouvoir des objectifs politiques. Dans les sociétés présentant un risque élevé de conflit, une éducation ciblée qui aide les minorités sociales, politiques et ethniques peut prévenir la violence. Si un conflit survient dans une société, l’éducation après le conflit peut combler les lacunes en matière de développement laissées par les populations déplacées, contribuant ainsi à restaurer l’économie de la société. L’éducation après un conflit peut également aider ceux qui ont été affectés négativement par le conflit, en particulier ceux qui ont perdu leur vie, leur famille ou leur maison ; l’éducation peut fournir les outils nécessaires à la résilience et à de nouvelles et meilleures opportunités. Enfin, l’éducation aux droits de l’homme peut réintégrer les anciens combattants en leur apprenant l’erreur de leur comportement violent et réconforter les anciennes victimes en leur apprenant à apprécier leur importance en tant qu’êtres humains.

Un dernier défi auquel l’éducation continue de faire face est celui des bouleversements permanents causés par la pandémie de COVID-19. Les élèves les plus touchés par l’apprentissage numérique, notamment les jeunes enfants et ceux qui n’ont pas les moyens d’accéder à Internet ou à la technologie numérique, continuent de prendre du retard à l’école. Nous devons empêcher ce que l’on appelle de plus en plus une “crise mondiale de l’apprentissage”, car les enfants ne reçoivent pas la qualité d’éducation qui était offerte avant la pandémie COVID-19 et les écoles ne parviennent pas à s’adapter aux exigences changeantes du 21e siècle. Les décideurs politiques nationaux et internationaux doivent solliciter les réactions des écoles et des familles pour savoir comment la politique éducative peut évoluer à l’ère du numérique, et comment la numérisation peut intégrer des élèves de tous horizons et de tous besoins d’apprentissage.

En 2023, Broken Chalk se concentrera sur ces questions en plus d’autres. Il est important de se rappeler, en cette Journée internationale des droits de l’homme, que tous les droits de l’homme sont interconnectés et se génèrent mutuellement ; faciliter le droit à l’éducation contribuera à faciliter d’autres droits de l’homme, comme le droit à la vie, à l’égalité devant la loi, à la vie privée, à la propriété, à la liberté de pensée, de conscience et de religion, à la liberté d’opinion et d’expression, etc. Réciproquement, les avancées dans d’autres droits de l’homme auront un impact positif sur l’éducation.

Broken Chalk s’engage à ce que cette nouvelle année, nous travaillions dur pour promouvoir tous les droits de l’homme en renforçant le droit à l’éducation.

Signé par

Broken Chalk

Human Rights Day 2022 Press Release_French


10. Dezember 2022


“Die Förderung des Rechts auf Bildung wird dazu beitragen, andere Menschenrechte zu fördern”

Am 10. Dezember möchte Broken Chalk nicht nur den 74. Jahrestag der Allgemeinen Erklärung der Menschenrechte feiern, sondern auch über die vielen Herausforderungen und Erfolge nachdenken, mit denen die Menschenrechtsgemeinschaft in diesem Jahr konfrontiert war. Wie immer ist es auch heute die Aufgabe von Broken Chalk, Wissen über die Rolle der Bildung in der Verwirklichung von Menschenrechten zu verbreiten. Trotz der zahlreichen Fortschritte im Bereich der Menschenrechte auf der ganzen Welt hindern Armut, systematische und institutionelle Gewalt, Diskriminierung und Korruption Kinder und junge Erwachsene weiterhin daran, ihr Recht auf Bildung in vollem Umfang zu verwirklichen. Zu Beginn des Jahres 2023 lohnt es sich, darüber nachzudenken, welche Maßnahmen die einzelnen Länder und die internationale Gemeinschaft ergreifen sollten, um eine erreichbare, hochwertige Bildung für alle zu fördern.

Auch im Jahr 2022 war die Finanzierung eines der größten Hindernisse, um diese Art Bildung möglich zu machen. In Bildungseinrichtungen auf der ganzen Welt fehlt es nach wie vor an sicherer Infrastruktur, sauberem Wasser, ausreichend Material, Büchern und anderen Lehrmitteln. Pädagogen erhalten nur selten ein existenzsicherndes Gehalt, obwohl sie eine der wichtigsten Arbeiten in der Gesellschaft verrichten. Diese Finanzierungskrise verschärft sich mit der zunehmenden weltweiten Inflation. Wenn die Wirtschaft schrumpft, kürzen die Regierungen die Bildungsbudgets, wodurch die Qualität der Bildung weiter sinkt. Gleichzeitig brauchen die Familien mehr Einkommen, so dass immer mehr Kinder die Schule verlassen, um zu arbeiten. Diese beiden Probleme verstärken sich gegenseitig: Wenn die Qualität der Bildung eines Kindes sinkt, werden Familien, die eine Kosten-Nutzen-Analyse durchführen, eher der Arbeit den Vorzug vor der Schule geben, weil Arbeit einen unmittelbareren Wert darstellt. Dies kann dauerhafte Auswirkungen haben; eine ungebildete Erwerbsbevölkerung kann die Löhne für alle drücken, was die Einkommensunterschiede vergrößert und die Armut verschlimmert. Um diesen Teufelskreis zu verhindern, müssen wir unsere politischen Entscheidungsträger – auf nationaler und internationaler Ebene – daran erinnern, dass Bildung ein wesentliches Menschenrecht ist, für das ausreichende Mittel bereitgestellt werden müssen.

Ein weiteres Problem, das den Zugang zu qualitativ hochwertiger Bildung erschwert, ist die zunehmende Verbreitung interner Konflikte. Aufgrund der ungerechten Strafverfolgungspraktiken der derzeitigen Regierung in der Türkei wurden Lehrer gefoltert, inhaftiert und getötet. Zwischen der Gewalt im Iran, den wiederholten Putschen in Burkina Faso, der Invasion in der Ukraine, dem Erstarken der Taliban in Afghanistan und den andauernden Konflikten in Äthiopien, Syrien, Jemen, Myanmar und vielen anderen Ländern hat das Jahr 2022 vielen der akutesten Auseinandersetzungen in der Welt kein Ende gesetzt. In Konfliktgebieten steht die Verwirklichung des Menschenrechts auf Bildung vor nahezu unüberwindbaren Herausforderungen. Die ständige Bedrohung durch Gewalt verhindert, dass Bildung überhaupt stattfinden kann, zumal Bildungseinrichtungen häufig von aufständischen bewaffneten Gruppen angegriffen werden. Familien erleiden große Verluste, z. B. den Verlust ihres eigenen Lebens, ihrer Familienmitglieder, ihres Einkommens oder ihres Zuhauses, und können sogar zu Flüchtlingen oder Binnenvertriebenen werden. Die Konsolidierung der humanitären Hilfe ist von entscheidender Bedeutung, um sicherzustellen, dass grundlegende Bildungsdienste auch während eines Konflikts weiterhin zur Verfügung stehen. In vielerlei Hinsicht ist Bildung ein wirksames Mittel, um Konflikte zu verhindern, bevor sie entstehen, und die sozialen Folgen von Konflikten zu behandeln, nachdem sie entstanden sind. Bildung ist entscheidend für den Aufbau des sozialen Zusammenhalts und bietet ein gewaltfreies Ventil, um politische Ziele auszudrücken und zu fördern. In Gesellschaften mit höherem Konfliktrisiko kann eine gezielte Bildung, die soziale, politische und ethnische Minderheiten unterstützt, Gewalt verhindern. Kommt es in einer Gesellschaft zu einem Konflikt, kann Bildung im Nachhinein die Entwicklungslücken schließen, die durch die vertriebene Bevölkerung entstanden sind, und dazu beitragen, die Wirtschaft einer Gesellschaft wieder aufzubauen. Bildung nach Konflikten kann auch denjenigen helfen, die vom Konflikt negativ betroffen waren, insbesondere denjenigen,  die ihre Familie oder ihr Zuhause verloren haben. Bildung kann das Werkzeug für Widerstandsfähigkeit und neue, bessere Chancen liefern. Shließlich kann Menschenrechtsbildung ehemalige Kämpfer wieder eingliedern, indem sie ihnen die Fehler ihres gewalttätigen Verhaltens vor Augen führt, und ehemalige Opfer trösten, indem sie ihnen hilft, sich selbst als Mensch wieder wertzuschätzen.

Eine letzte Herausforderung für das Bildungswesen sind die anhaltenden Verlagerungen, die durch die COVID-19-Pandemie verursacht werden. Diejenigen Schüler, die am meisten digital lernen müssen, darunter kleine Kinder und diejenigen, die sich kein Internet oder keine digitale Technologie leisten können, bleiben im Schulstoff weiterhin zurück. Wir als Kollektiv müssen das verhindern, was zunehmend als “globale Lernkrise” bezeichnet wird, da die Kinder nicht die Qualität der Bildung erhalten, die vor COVID-19 gegeben war, und die Schulen es nicht schaffen, sich an die veränderten Anforderungen des 21. Jahrhunderts anzupassen. Nationale und internationale politische Entscheidungsträger müssen das Feedback von Schulen und Familien einholen, um zu erfahren, wie sich die Bildungspolitik im digitalen Zeitalter verändern kann und wie die Digitalisierung Schüler mit unterschiedlichem Hintergrund und Lernbedarf miteinbeziehen kann.

Im Jahr 2023 wird sich Broken Chalk, neben anderen Themen, auf diese Probleme fokussieren. Es ist wichtig, sich an diesem Internationalen Tag der Menschenrechte daran zu erinnern, dass alle Menschenrechte miteinander verbunden sind. Die Förderung des Rechts auf Bildung wird dazu beitragen, andere Menschenrechte zu fördern, wie das Recht auf Leben, Gleichheit vor dem Gesetz, Privatsphäre, Eigentum, Gedanken-, Gewissens- und Religionsfreiheit, Meinungsfreiheit und freie Meinungsäußerung und vieles mehr. Umgekehrt werden sich Fortschritte bei anderen Menschenrechten positiv auf die Bildung auswirken.

 Broken Chalk verspricht, dass wir uns im neuen Jahr für die Förderung aller Menschenrechte einsetzen werden, indem wir das Recht auf Bildung stärken.

 Unterzeichnet von 

Broken Chalk


Sajtóközlemény: Emberi jogok világnapja, 2022

 2022 December 10

Sajtóközlemény: Az emberi jogos napja, 2022

Az oktatáshoz való emberi jog elősegítése más emberi jogok érvényesülését is elősegíti

Idén december 10-én a Broken Chalk nemcsak az Emberi Jogok Egyetemes Nyilatkozatának 74. évfordulóját kívánja megünnepelni, hanem reflektálni is szeretne azokra a kihívásokra és sikerekre, amelyekkel az emberi jogi közösség ebben az évben szembesült. Mint mindig, most is a Broken Chalk egyik fontos küldetése, hogy felhívja a figyelmet az oktatás fontosságára az emberi jogok aktualizálásában. Annak ellenére, hogy az emberi jogok terén világszerte számos előrelépés történt, a szegénység, a szisztematikus és intézményes erőszak, a diszkrimináció és a korrupció továbbra is megakadályozza a gyermekeket és a fiatal felnőtteket abban, hogy teljes mértékben érvényesítsék az oktatáshoz való jogukat. Ahogy a 2023-as év elindul, érdemes átgondolnunk, hogy az egyes nemzeteknek és a nemzetközi közösségnek milyen politikákat kell bevezetnie a mindenki számára elérhető minőségi oktatás elősegítése érdekében.

2022-ben továbbra is az anyagi nehézségek jelentették az egyik legnagyobb akadályt az oktatáshoz való hozzáféréshez. Az oktatási létesítményekben világszerte továbbra is hiányzik a biztonságos infrastruktúra, a tiszta víz, az elegendő felszerelés, könyvek és egyéb tanszerek. A pedagógusok ritkán kapnak megélhetési bért annak ellenére, hogy egy társadalomban a legalapvetőbb munkát végzik. Ez a finanszírozási válság a globális infláció növekedésével súlyosbodik. A gazdaság hanyatlásával a kormányok csökkentik az oktatási költségvetést, tovább rontva az oktatás minőségét. Ugyanakkor a családoknak több jövedelemre van szükségük, ezért több gyermek hagyja ott az iskolát hogy helyette dolgozzon és pénzt keressen. Ez a két tényező egymást erősíti; ha a gyermek oktatásának minősége romlik, a árértékarányra tekintettel lévő családok nagyobb valószínűséggel részesítik előnyben a munkát az iskolával szemben, mivel a munkavégzés közvetlenebb értékkel bír. Ennek tartós negatív hatásai lehetnek; az iskolázatlan munkaerő mindenki számára csökkentheti a béreket, növelve a vagyonegyenlőtlenségeket és súlyosbítva a szegénységet. Ennek az ördögi körnek a megakadályozása érdekében emlékeztetnünk kell politikai döntéshozóinkat – nemzeti és nemzetközieket egyaránt –, hogy az oktatás alapvető emberi jog, amelyhez elegendő finanszírozást kell biztosítani.

A hozzáférhető és minőségi oktatás másik problémája az országokon belüli konfliktusok elterjedése. A jelenlegi török kormány igazságtalan bűnüldözési gyakorlata miatt a tanárok kínzásnak és bebörtönözésnek vannak kitéve, illetve egy részük életüket is vesztették. Az iráni erőszak, a burkina fasói ismétlődő puccsok, az ukrán invázió, a tálibok hatalmának kikristályosodása Afganisztánban, valamint az etiópiai, szíriai, jemeni, mianmari és sok más országban való konfliktus mind hátráltatta 2022-ben, hogy a világ legégetőbb problémáira megoldás szülessen. A konfliktusövezetekben az oktatáshoz való emberi jog érvényesítése szinte leküzdhetetlen kihívásokkal néz szembe. Az erőszak állandó fenyegetése megakadályozza az oktatást, különös tekintettel arra, hogy az oktatási létesítmények gyakran a felkelő fegyveres csoportok célpontjaivá válnak. A családok nagy veszteségeket szenvednek el, beleértve az emberéletek, a családtagok, a jövedelem és/vagy otthonuk elvesztését, sőt sok esetben menekültté is válnak. A humanitárius segítségnyújtásra irányuló erőfeszítések megszilárdítása elengedhetetlen annak érdekében, hogy egyes alapvető oktatási szolgáltatások továbbra is biztosítva legyenek a konfliktusok idején. Az oktatás sok szempontból hatékony gyógyszer a konfliktusok megelőzésére és a konfliktus társadalmi következményeinek kezelésére is. Az oktatás kulcsfontosságú a társadalmi kohézió kialakításában, és erőszakmentes módot kínál a politikai célok kifejezésére és megvalósítására. A nagyobb konfliktuskockázatú társadalmakban a társadalmi, politikai és etnikai kisebbségeket segítő célzott oktatás megelőzheti az erőszakot. Ha a társadalmon belül konfliktus történik, az utólagos oktatás pótolhatja a kitelepített lakosság által hagyott fejlődési réseket, elősegítve a társadalom gazdagságának helyreállítását. A konfliktus utáni oktatás segíthet azoknak is, akiket a konfliktus negatívan érintett, különösen azokon, akik elvesztették családjukat vagy otthonukat; az oktatás eszközt adhat a rugalmassághoz és az új, jobb lehetőségekhez. Végezetül, az emberi jogi oktatás képes visszaintegrálni a korábbi harcosokat azáltal, hogy megtanítja őket erőszakos magatartásuk hibájára, és megvigasztalhatja a korábbi áldozatokat azáltal, hogy megtanítja őket értékelni emberi lényként betöltött fontosságukat.

Az utolsó kihívás, amellyel az oktatásnak továbbra is szembe kell néznie, a COVID-19 világjárvány okozta folyamatos változások és lemaradások. A digitális tanulás által leginkább érintett tanulók, köztük a kisgyermekek és azok, akik nem engedhetik meg maguknak az internetet vagy a digitális technológiát, továbbra is lemaradnak az iskolában. Meg kell akadályoznunk azt, amit egyre inkább „globális tanulási válságnak” neveznek, mivel a gyerekek nem kapják meg a COVID-19 előtti színvonalú oktatást, és az iskolák nem tudnak alkalmazkodni a 21. század változó igényeihez. A nemzeti és nemzetközi döntéshozóknak visszajelzést kell kérniük az iskoláktól és a családoktól, hogy megtudják, hogyan változhat meg az oktatáspolitika a digitális korban, és hogyan képes a digitalizálás minden hátterű és tanulási igényű tanulót bevonni.

2023-ban a Broken Chalk többek között ezekre a kérdésekre fog fókuszálni. Fontos megjegyezni, hogy az emberi jogok nemzetközi napján minden emberi jog összefügg, és kölcsönhatásban van; az oktatáshoz való jog érvényesítése más emberi jogok, például az élethez, a törvény előtti egyenlőséghez, a magánélethez, a tulajdonjoghoz, a gondolat-, lelkiismereti és vallásszabadsághoz, vélemény- és véleményszabadsághoz és még sok máshoz is hozzájárul. Kölcsönösen, az egyéb emberi jogok terén elért előrelépések pozitív hatással lesznek az oktatásra.

A Broken Chalk elkötelezi magát, hogy ebben az új évben is keményen fog dolgozni minden emberi jog előmozdításán az oktatáshoz való jog felemelésével.


Broken Chalk


بيان صحفي: يوم حقوق الإنسان ٢٠٢٢

بيان صحفي: يوم حقوق الإنسان ٢٠٢٢

” يساعد تيسير الحق في التعليم على تسهيل حقوق الإنسان الأخرى ”

في العاشر من ديسمبر ترغب بروكن تشالك في الاحتفال بالذكرى السنوية الـ ٧٤ لليوم العالمي لحقوق الإنسان، و تغتنم الفرصة أيضًا  للتفكير في العديد من التحديات والنجاحات التي واجهها مجتمع حقوق الإنسان هذا العام. كما هو الحال دائمًا ، تتمثل مهمة بروكن تشالك اليوم في نشر المعرفة حول أهمية التعليم في  إدراك حقوق الإنسان. على الرغم من تعدد أوجه التقدم في مجال حقوق الإنسان في جميع أنحاء العالم ، إلا أن الفقر والعنف المنهجي والمؤسسي والتمييز والفساد لا يزال يمنع الأطفال والشباب من الاستيعاب الكامل لحقهم في التعليم. مع بداية عام ٢٠٢٣، من المفيد النظر في السياسات التي يجب أن تتبناها الدول الفردية والمجتمع الدولي لتعزيز  اتاحة التعليم ذو الجودة للجميع.

إن التمويل أحد أكبر العوائق التي تمنع اتاحة التعليم للجميع، و هذا ما رأيناه في عام ٢٠٢٢ـ فلا تزال المرافق التعليمية في جميع أنحاء العالم تفتقر إلى البنية التحتية الآمنة والمياه النظيفة والإمدادات الكافية والكتب والمواد التعليمية الأخرى. ايضا، نادرًا ما يتقاضى اختصاصيو التعليم أجرًا معيشيًا على الرغم من تأديتهم أهم الأعمال الأساسية في المجتمع.

ان أزمة التمويل تزداد سوءًا مع نمو التضخم العالمي. مع تدهور الاقتصاد ، تقوم الحكومات بتقشف الميزانيات التعليمية، مما يقلل من جودة التعليم. في الوقت نفسه، تحتاج العائلات إلى زيادة دخلهم ، وبالتالي يزداد الأطفال بترك المدرسة لمقابل العمل. هاتان الحقيقتان تعززان ذاتيا. إذا انخفضت جودة التعليم الذي يتلقاه الطفل، فمن المرجح أن تعطي العائلات الأولوية للعمل على المدرسة لأن العمل يمثل قيمة فورية أكثر.

لهذه الظاهرة آثار دائمة؛  فبإمكان القوى العاملة غير المتعلمة أن تخفض الأجور للجميع،  و تزداد التفاوتات في الدخل و حدة الفقر. لمنع هذه الحلقة المفرغة، يجب أن نذكر صانعي السياسات – الوطنيين والدوليين – بأن التعليم هو حق أساسي من حقوق الإنسان يجب تخصيص التمويل الكافي له.

هناك مشكلة أخرى تواجه التعليم وهي الانتشار المتزايد للصراع الداخلي. بسبب ممارسات إنفاذ القانون الجائرة التي تستخدمها الحكومة الحالية في تركيا ، تعرض المعلمون للتعذيب والسجن و الموت.

بين العنف في إيران ، والانقلابات المتكررة في بوركينا فاسو ، وغزو أوكرانيا ، وتبلور قوة الطالبان في أفغانستان ، والصراعات المستمرة في إثيوبيا وسوريا واليمن وميانمار وغيرها الكثير، لم يضع ٢٠٢٢ لنزاعات العالم المتعددة.


في مناطق النزاع، يواجه استيعاب حق الإنسان في التعليم تحديات لا يمكن التغلب عليها. إن التهديد المستمر بالعنف يمنع من إدراك التعليم على الإطلاق ، لا سيما بالنظر إلى أن المنشآت التعليمية كثيرًا ما تستهدفها الجماعات المسلحة المتمردة. تعاني العائلات من خسائر كبيرة تتراوح بين الخسائر في الأرواح وأفراد الأسرة والدخل أو المنزل، وقد يصبح الشعب لاجئين أو نازحين داخليًا. يعد توحيد جهود المساعدات الإنسانية أمرًا ضروريًا لضمان استمرار تقديم بعض الخدمات التعليمية الأساسية حتى أثناء النزاع. من نواحٍ عديدة، يعد التعليم دواءً فعالاً لمنع الصراع قبل حدوثه ومعالجة العواقب الاجتماعية للنزاع بعد وقوعه. يعد التعليم أمرًا بالغ الأهمية لبناء التماسك الاجتماعي ويوفر منفذًا غير عنيف للتعبير عن الأهداف السياسية وتعزيزها. في المجتمعات ذات المخاطر العالية للنزاع ، يمكن للتعليم الموجه للأقليات الاجتماعية والسياسية والعرقية أن يمنع العنف.

في حالة حدوث نزاع داخل المجتمع، يمكن للتعليم بعد وقوع الحدث أن يملأ الفجوات التنموية التي خلفها السكان النازحون، مما يساعد على استعادة اقتصاد المجتمع. يمكن أن يساعد التعليم بعد النزاع أيضًا أولئك الذين تأثروا سلبيا بالنزاع، وخاصة أولئك الذين فقدوا حياتهم أو أسرهم أو منزلهم؛ يمكن أن يوفر التعليم الأدوات اللازمة للمرونة وفرصًا جديدة أفضل. أخيرًا ، يمكن للتثقيف في مجال حقوق الإنسان إعادة دمج المحاربين السابقين من خلال تعليمهم خطأ سلوكهم العنيف وتهدئة الضحايا السابقين من خلال تعليمهم و تقدير أهميتهم كبشر.

التحدي الأخير الذي لا يزال التعليم يناضله هو الاضطرابات المستمرة الناجمة عن جائحة كوفيد-١٩.  يواجه الطلاب الأكثر تأثراً بالتعلم الرقمي، بما في ذلك الأطفال الصغار وأولئك الذين لا يستطيعون تحمل تكلفة الإنترنت أو التكنولوجيا الرقمية، صعوبات في  الاندماج مع الدراسة في المدرسة.

يجب علينا منع ما يسمى بشكل متزايد “بأزمة التعلم العالمية”، حيث لا يتلقى الأطفال جودة التعليم التي تم تقديمها قبل كوفيد-١٩. والمدارس تفشل في التكيف مع المتطلبات المتغيرة للقرن الحادي والعشرين. يجب على صانعي السياسات الوطنيين والدوليين السعي للتجاوب مع المدارس والأسر لمعرفة امكانيات السياسة التعليمية في العصر الرقمي، وكيف يمكن للرقمنة أن تدمج الطلاب من جميع الخلفيات واحتياجات التعلم.

في عام ٢٠٢٣، ستركز بروكن تشالك على هذه القضايا. من المهم أن نتذكر في هذا اليوم العالمي لحقوق الإنسان أن جميع حقوق الإنسان مترابطة ومتولدة بشكل متبادل ؛ سيساعد تيسير الحق في التعليم على تسهيل حقوق الإنسان الأخرى، مثل الحق في الحياة والمساواة بموجب القانون والخصوصية والملكية، وحرية الفكر والدين، وحرية الرأي والتعبير وغير ذلك. وبالمقابل، فإن التقدم في حقوق الإنسان الأخرى سيؤثر إيجابياً على التعليم.

تتعهد بروكن تشالك بأننا في العام الجديد ، سنعمل بجد لتعزيز جميع حقوق الإنسان من خلال رفع مستوى الحق في التعليم.

Broken Chalk


Basın Bildirisi: İNSAN HAKLARI GÜNÜ 2022

10  Kasım 2022

Basın Bildirisi: İNSAN HAKLARI GÜNÜ 2022

Eğitim hakkının gözetilmesi, diğer insan haklarının gözetilmesine yardımcı olacaktır

 10 Aralık’ta Broken Chalk (Kırık tebeşir), yalnızca İnsan Hakları Evrensel Bildirgesi’nin 74. yıl dönümünü kutlamakla kalmayıp, aynı zamanda insan hakları camiasının bu yıl karşılaştığı birçok zorluk ve başarıyı da yansıtmayı diliyor.

Broken Chalk’un ana misyonu her zaman olduğu gibi, insan haklarının gerçekleştirilmesinde eğitimin önemi hakkında bilgi yaymaktır. İnsan hakları alanında dünya çapında çok sayıda ilerlemeye rağmen, yoksulluk, sistematik ve kurumsal şiddet, ayrımcılık ve yolsuzluk gibi konular çocukların ve genç yetişkinlerin eğitim haklarını tam olarak gerçekleştirmelerini engellemeye devam ediyor. 2023’e başlarken, tek tek ulusların ve uluslararası toplumun tüm kesimler için erişilebilir ve kaliteli bir eğitimi teşvik etmek adına ne gibi politikaları takip etmeleri  gerektiği, üzerinde durulması gereken önemli bir konudur.

2022 yılında da bu tür eğitimlerin önündeki en büyük engellerden biri finansman olmaya devam etti. Dünyanın dört bir yanındaki eğitim tesisleri, güvenli altyapı, temiz su, yeterli malzeme, kitap ve diğer öğretim materyallerinden yoksun kalmaya devam ediyor. Toplumdaki en hayati işlerden birini yapmalarına rağmen eğitimcilere çoğunlukla yaşam standardının altında ödeme yapılmaya devam edilmektedir. Küresel enflasyon büyüdükçe bu durum daha da kötüleşmekte, ekonomik verilerin bozulmasıyla hükümetler eğitim bütçelerini sıkılaştırarak verilen eğitimin kalitesini daha da düşürmektedir. Aynı zamanda ailelerin gelire olan ihtiyacının artmasıyla daha fazla çocuk çalışma maksadıyla okulu bırkamaktadır. Bir çocuğun aldığı eğitimin kalitesi düşerse, maliyet-fayda analizi yapan ailelerin okul yerine çalışmaya öncelik vermesi daha olasıdır çünkü çocuğun çalışması aileye kısa vadede ekonomik bir katkı sunar. bu durum tam bir kısır bir döngü oluşturmaktadır.

Erişilebilir ve kaliteli eğitimin karşı karşıya olduğu bir başka sorun da dünyanın değişik yerlerindeki iç çatışma ve çekişmelerin yaygınlaşmasıdır. Türkiye’de mevcut hükümetin adaletsiz kolluk uygulamaları nedeniyle bir çok öğretmen işkenceye maruz kalmış, hapse atılmış ve hayatını kaybetmiştir. İran’daki şiddet, Burkina Faso’da tekrarlanan darbeler, Ukrayna’nın işgali, Afganistan’da Taliban’ın gücünün tekrar elde etmesi ve Etiyopya, Suriye, Yemen, Myanmar ve diğer pek çok ülkede devam eden çatışmalar 2022 yılında da ihtilaflı konular olarak kalmaya devam etti. Çatışma bölgelerindeki insanların eğitim haklarını muhafaza etmek neredeyse imkansız hale geldi. Bu bölgelerde eğitim faaliyetlerinin sürdürülmesi, sürekli şiddet tehdidi, özellikle eğitim tesislerinin isyancı silahlı gruplar tarafından sık sık hedef alınmasıyla engellenmektedir. Aileler, aile üyelerini, varlıklarını, evlerini kaybetmekte hatta mülteci veya ülke içi mülteci haline gelmektedirler. Bazı temel eğitim hizmetlerinin çatışma sırasında bile sağlanmaya devam etmesini temin etmek için insani yardım çabalarını desteklemek çok önemlidir. Birçok yönden eğitim, çatışmayı ortaya çıkmadan önce önlemek ve çatışmanın sosyal sonuçlarını ortaya çıktıktan sonra tedavi etmek için etkili bir ilaçtır.

 Eğitim, sosyal uyum oluşturmak için kritik öneme sahiptir ve siyasi hedefleri ifade etmek ve ilerletmek için şiddet içermeyen bir çıkış yolu sunar, aynı zamanda çatışma riskinin daha yüksek olduğu toplumlarda, sosyal, politik ve etnik azınlıklara yardımcı olarak hedefe yönelik şiddeti önleyebilir. Bir toplumda çatışma meydana gelirse, olaydan sonra eğitim, yerinden edilmiş nüfusların bıraktığı gelişimsel boşlukları doldurabilir ve bir toplumun ekonomisini eski haline getirmeye yardımcı olabilir. Ayrıca eğitim, çatışma sonrası çatışmadan olumsuz etkilenenlere, özellikle hayatını, ailesini veya evini kaybedenlere daha dayanıklı olabilmeleri için kullandığı araçlarla ve sağladığı fırsatlarla yardımcı olabilir. Son olarak, insan hakları eğitimi, savaşlarda yer almış kişilere gösterdikleri şiddet davranışlarının yanlışlığını öğreterek onları yeniden topluma kazandırabilir ve savaş kurbanlarına insan olarak önemlerini takdir etmeyi öğreterek onları bir nebze de olsa rahatlatabilir.

Eğitimin yüzleşmeye devam ettiği son bir zorluk da, COVID-19 salgınının neden olduğu ve halen etkileri devam eden eksikliklerdir. Bu dijital eğitimden en çok etkilelenen küçük yaş gruplarındaki öğrenciler ve internet veya dijital teknolojiye erişmek için yeterli imkanı olmayanlar öğrenciler okulda geride kalmaya devam ediyor.  Öğrencilerin COVID-19 öncesi sunulan eğitim kalitesini alamamasından ve okulların 21. yüzyılın değişen taleplerine uyum sağlayamamasından kaynaklı  ve  giderek daha fazla kişi tarafından “küresel öğrenme krizi” olarak adlandırılan durumu önlemeliyiz. Ulusal ve uluslararası politika yapıcılar, dijital çağda eğitim politikasının nasıl değişebileceğini ve dijitalleşme sürecine her türden ve farklı  öğrenme modellerine ihtiyacı olan öğrencilerin nasıl dahil edilebileceğini öğrenmek için okullardan ve ailelerden dönütler almalıdır.

2023’te Broken Chalk diğer konulara ek olarak bu konulara da odaklanacak. Bu Uluslararası İnsan Hakları Günü’nde, tüm insan haklarının birbirine bağlı olduğunu ve birbirlerini desteklemek üzere oluşturulduğunu hatırlamak önemlidir; eğitim hakkını korumak, yaşam hakkı, kanun önünde eşitlik, mahremiyet, mülkiyet, düşünce, vicdan ve din özgürlüğü, fikir ve ifade özgürlüğü ve daha fazlası gibi diğer insan haklarının korunmasına da yardımcı olacaktır. Karşılıklı olarak, diğer insan haklarındaki gelişmeler eğitimi olumlu yönde etkileyecektir.

Broken Chalk olarak, bu Yeni Yıl’da eğitim hakkını yükselterek tüm insan haklarını desteklemek için çok çalışacağımıza söz veriyoruz.


Broken Chalk





Press Release: HUMAN RIGHTS DAY 2022


10th December 2022

Press Release: HUMAN RIGHTS DAY 2022

facilitating the right to education will help facilitate other human rights

This December 10th, Broken Chalk wishes not only to celebrate the 74th anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, but also to reflect on the many challenges and successes that the human rights community has faced this year. As always, it is Broken Chalk’s mission today to spread knowledge about the importance of education in actualizing human rights. Despite the multiplicity of advancements in human rights across the world, poverty, systematic and institutional violence, discrimination, and corruption continue to prevent children and young adults from fully realizing their right to education. As we begin 2023, it is worthwhile to consider what policies individual nations and the international community should adopt to foster accessible quality education for all.

In 2022, one of the largest barriers preventing such education continued to be funding. Educational facilities across the world continue to lack safe infrastructure, clean water, sufficient supplies, books, and other teaching materials. Educators are rarely paid a living wage despite performing some of the most essential labor in a society. This funding crisis grows worse as global inflation grows. As the economy declines, governments tighten educational budgets, further reducing the quality of the education provided. At the same time, families need more income hence more children drop out of school to work. These two facts are self-reinforcing; if the quality of education a child receives decreases, families performing cost-benefit analysis are more likely to prioritize working over school because working presents a more immediate value. This can have lasting effects; an uneducated labor force can depress wages for all, widening income inequalities and exacerbating poverty. To prevent this vicious cycle, we must remind our policymakers—national and international—that education is an essential human right in which sufficient funding must be allocated.

Another issue facing accessible and quality education is the growing prevalence of internal conflict. Due to the unjust law enforcement practices used by the current government in Turkey, teachers have been exposed to torture, imprisoned, and lost their lives. Between the violence in Iran, repeated coups in Burkina Faso, the invasion of Ukraine, the crystallization of the Taliban’s power in Afghanistan, and the ongoing conflicts in Ethiopia, Syria, Yemen, Myanmar, and many others, 2022 did not bring an end to many of the world’s most acute disputes. In conflict zones, fulfilling the human right to education faces nearly insurmountable challenges. The constant threat of violence prevents education from occurring at all, especially considering that educational facilities are frequently targeted by insurgent armed groups. Families suffer great losses ranging from loss of life, family members, income, and or home, and may even become refugees or internally displaced persons. Consolidating humanitarian aid efforts is essential to ensure that some basic educational services continue to be provided even during conflict. In many ways, education is an effective medicine to prevent conflict before it happens and treat the social consequences of conflict after it occurs. Education is critical to building social cohesion and offers a non-violent outlet to express and further political goals. In societies with higher risk of conflict, targeted education that assists social, political, and ethnic minorities can prevent violence. If conflict does occur within a society, education after the fact can fill developmental gaps left by displaced populations, helping to restore a society’s economy. Education after conflict can also help those who were negatively affected by conflict, especially those who have lost their lives, family or home; education can provide the tools to resiliency and new, better opportunities. Finally, human rights education can reintegrate former combatants by teaching them the error of their violent conduct and comfort former victims by teaching them to appreciate their importance as human beings.

A final challenge that education continues to face is the ongoing dislocations caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. Those students affected most by digital learning, including young children and those who cannot afford internet or digital technology, continue to fall behind in school. We must prevent what is increasingly being called a “global learning crisis,” as children do not receive the quality of education that was offered prior to COVID-19 and schools are failing to adapt to the changing demands of the 21st century. National and international policymakers must seek feedback from schools and families to learn how educational policy can change in the digital age, and how digitization can incorporate students of all backgrounds and learning needs.

In 2023, Broken Chalk will focus on these issues in addition to others. It is important to remember this International Human Rights Day that all human rights are interconnected and mutually generated; facilitating the right to education will help facilitate other human rights, like the rights to life, equality under the law, privacy, property, freedom of thought, conscience, and religion, freedom of opinion and expression, and more. Reciprocally, advances in other human rights will positively impact education.


Broken Chalk pledges that this New Year, we will work hard to promote all human rights by uplifting the right to education.


Signed by

Broken Chalk

Human Rights Day 2022 Press Release_Eng