From Challenges to Triumphs: Latvia’s Educational Narrative

Written by Anastasia Bagration-Gruzinski

Education plays a vital role in the development and prosperity of any nation. In Latvia, a Baltic country in Northern Europe with a population of 1.9 million, the post-Soviet era brought opportunities for growth and reform across various sectors. However, as Latvia embarked on its independent path, it faced significant challenges within its education system. This article delves into the diverse educational challenges facing Latvia and proposes potential solutions to ensure a brighter future for its youth and the nation as a whole.

Quality of Education

One of the primary challenges plaguing Latvia’s education system is the uneven quality of education. Although some improvements have occurred over the years, Latvian students’ average performance in international assessments, such as the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), continues to lag behind the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) average.

For example, Latvia ranked 30th out of 79 countries in mathematics, science and reading in the 2018 PISA assessments and 21 in the 2022 PISA. Such trends highlight underlying issues within teaching methodologies, curriculum design, assessment practices and learning environments that need attention and reform. Insufficient training for teachers and limited education funding contribute to this challenge.

Regional Disparities

Latvia’s education system exhibits significant regional disparities in access to quality education. Rural areas and small towns, especially Latgale – the poorest region, suffer from inadequate educational resources. This includes shortages of well-trained teachers, crumbling school infrastructure, lack of access to technology, limited course options, and inadequate learning facilities like libraries or laboratories.

For instance, schools in rural Aluksne had 10 teachers per 100 students in 2020, compared to just 6 teachers per 100 students in urban Riga. Such inequality in opportunities based on geographical location is a matter of grave concern and requires immediate policy and resource allocation interventions.

Teacher Shortages

Similar to many countries worldwide, Latvia faces an acute shortage of qualified teachers across subjects, which exacerbates educational challenges. Low salaries, limited professional development opportunities, high workloads and stressful working conditions contribute to the lack of new entrants to the teaching profession.

For example, the average monthly salary for teachers was just €930 in 2019, nearly 25% below the national average. Subjects like mathematics, sciences, foreign languages, and vocational skills face especially dire shortages. The consequences of teacher shortages are far-reaching, negatively impacting the quality of education and student outcomes.

Language of Instruction

Latvia’s ethnically diverse population, including a significant Russian-speaking minority comprising over 30% of the populace, poses challenges regarding language of instruction policies. The current national educational policy prioritizes Latvian as the primary medium of instruction. This can disadvantage students from Russian or other linguistic minority backgrounds who struggle with academic Latvian.

Critics argue this language barrier can result in lower educational attainment and assessments for minority-language students. Hence, balancing preservation of the national language with principles of equity and inclusion remains a persistent dilemma.

Early School Drop-out

Latvia has one of the highest rates of early school leaving in the European Union, with over 8% of 18-24 year olds classified as early school leavers in 2020. This premature disengagement from education severely limits students’ future higher education and employment prospects in today’s knowledge economy.

Complex factors like poverty, learning difficulties, family problems, disability or cultural biases contribute to early school abandonment. Tackling this urgent issue requires identifying and addressing its multifaceted root causes.

Possible Solutions to Latvia’s Educational Challenges:

1. Teacher Training and Professional Development

Investing in rigorous pre-service and in-service teacher training programs is crucial to enhance the quality of education in Latvia. Providing teachers with ample opportunities to learn modern pedagogies, educational technology skills, subject content knowledge and classroom management strategies can positively impact their teaching quality and student learning.

Incentives like salary increases for professional development, reduced workloads for new teachers, and training costs coverage can encourage continuous upskilling. Latvia must elevate the teaching profession and empower teachers to provide an outstanding education.

2. Equitable Resource Allocation

To mitigate regional disparities, the Latvian government must prioritize the equitable allocation of educational resources, including qualified teachers, infrastructure upgrades, learning technologies and instructional materials. Needs-based funding formulas can help ensure rural schools receive resources matching their student requirements. Upgrading rural school facilities and amenities is essential to bridge the urban-rural divide.

3. Multilingual Education

Promoting competency-based multilingual education is key to cater to Latvia’s diverse populace. Students should build a strong foundation in Latvian while also gaining proficiency in languages like English and Russian to thrive in a globalized world. Introducing immersive bilingual programs, recruiting multilingual teachers and encouraging exchange programs can support an inclusive multilingual vision.

4. Vocational Education

Latvia should strengthen and elevate vocational education and training (VET) programs as a viable pathway for students. VET provides relevant skills for trades and careers like engineering, IT, healthcare, business, hospitality and more. Work-based learning through apprenticeships and partnerships with industry can boost employability. Promoting VET through career guidance initiatives and highlighting its benefits is imperative.

5. Early Intervention Programs

Implementing targeted early intervention programs is vital to identify and assist students at risk of dropping out. Academic, social, psychological and career counseling services can help struggling students overcome challenges. Initiatives like vocational or alternative schools, online/remote learning options, and modified curriculum or evaluations may re-engage disconnected students. A holistic support system can get students back on track.

6. International Collaboration

International cooperation provides invaluable insights into global best practices that can inform Latvia’s education reforms. Participating in exchange programs, partnering with international education experts, and exploring successful initiatives from high-performing school systems worldwide can accelerate improvements. The OECD and EU provide important technical guidance and networking platforms.

7. Parental Engagement

Schools should actively encourage parental participation in education through frequent communication and workshops on supporting children’s learning. Equipping parents with tools like reading aids, disciplinary techniques and homework strategies fosters positive home learning environments. Regular parent-teacher meetings and volunteering opportunities can strengthen family-school partnerships and student outcomes.

8. Technology Integration

Integrating digital technologies like online learning platforms, interactive simulations, education apps and multimedia creation tools can enhance instruction and learning. However, this requires infrastructure investments, teacher training, well-designed e-content, and equitable student access. Blending online elements with traditional classroom teaching can make learning engaging, collaborative and tailored to diverse needs.

9. Quality Assurance Mechanisms

Robust quality assurance frameworks are essential to monitor and evaluate school performance, teacher practices and student outcomes. Standardized assessments, inspections, surveys and performance targets can help identify areas for improvement. Data analytics should guide evidence-based reforms and resource allocation. Sharing best practices between high-performing and struggling schools also facilitates growth.

10. Comprehensive Education Reforms

Fundamental reforms are imperative to address deep-rooted, systemic challenges. Policy initiatives could encompass modernizing curricula, elevating teacher status, implementing equitable funding structures, improving vocational education and creating inclusive language policies. A long-term roadmap for phased reforms with clear goals and monitoring systems can drive impactful change.

11. Increased Public Investment

Adequate public financial resources are critical to execute impactful reforms, upgrade infrastructure, support teachers and improve overall quality. Education funding in Latvia remains below EU averages. Policymakers must make education a top priority in annual budgets. Supplementing with support from parents, communities and private sector can create synergies.

In conclusion, Latvia’s key education challenges encompass uneven quality, regional disparities, teacher shortages, language barriers, and high early school leaving. Tackling these requires a multidimensional approach including teacher development, equitable resource allocation, multilingual instruction, vocational training, preventive interventions, digital adoption, quality assurance frameworks, public investment and international collaboration. Investing in such solutions can empower Latvia’s youth to excel academically and professionally while fostering inclusive growth. Education is the foundation for Latvia’s progress, competitiveness and prosperity in the 21st century global economy. With comprehensive reforms and collective effort from all stakeholders, Latvia can transform its education system challenges into triumph.

A special mention goes to my dear friend Ana Mamaladze, whose valuable insights and discussions greatly enhanced the depth of my research.

Beyond the Medina: Unpacking Morocco’s Educational Challenges

Written by Anastasia Bagration-Gruzinski

Morocco is a North African country that is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean, the Mediterranean Sea, and Algeria. The country has a population of over 36 million people, making it the fifth-largest economy in Africa. Although Morocco is one of the most prosperous and politically stable countries in the region, it still faces several educational challenges.

According to UNESCO, the literacy rate in Morocco is 73%, with a 66% literacy rate for women and a 79% literacy rate for men. Although this is an improvement from previous years, there is still a significant disparity between urban and rural areas, with rural areas having lower literacy rates. Moreover, the quality of education is a concern, with a high dropout rate and low educational achievement levels.

In this article, we will examine the educational challenges that Morocco is facing, as well as possible solutions to address these challenges.

Schoolchildren admiring an eclipse in Morocco. Photo by Universe Awareness.

Challenges Facing Morocco’s Education System

Quality of Education

One of the most pressing challenges facing Morocco’s education system is the quality of education. Many Moroccan students struggle with basic reading and writing skills, which leads to high dropout rates and low achievement levels. According to the World Bank, only 36% of Moroccan students who enroll in primary school complete secondary education.

The lack of quality education is partly due to the shortage of qualified teachers, particularly in rural areas. According to a report by the Moroccan Ministry of National Education, Vocational Training, Higher Education, and Scientific Research, there is a shortage of over 60,000 teachers in the country. This shortage results in larger class sizes, which makes it challenging for teachers to provide individualized attention to each student.

Access to Education

While education is compulsory in Morocco, many children, particularly those in rural areas, do not have access to education. According to a report by the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), about 200,000 Moroccan children between the ages of 7 and 13 are not enrolled in school. Girls are especially affected, with many families preferring to keep their daughters at home to help with household chores or marry them off at a young age.

Moreover, poverty is a significant barrier to education in Morocco, with many families unable to afford school supplies and uniforms, as well as transportation to and from school.

Curriculum and Teaching Methods

Morocco’s education system has been criticized for its outdated curriculum and teaching methods. The current curriculum does not align with the needs of the modern workforce and does not provide students with the skills and knowledge they need to succeed in the 21st century.

Additionally, the teaching methods used in Moroccan schools are often outdated and rely heavily on rote learning and memorization. This approach does not encourage critical thinking or creativity, which are essential skills in today’s rapidly changing world.

Gender Inequality

Gender inequality is a significant challenge in Morocco’s education system. While the government has made progress in promoting girls’ education, there is still a significant gender gap in enrollment and achievement. According to a report by UNESCO, the primary school net enrollment rate for girls in Morocco is 87%, compared to 93% for boys. Moreover, girls’ achievement levels are lower than boys, with a higher dropout rate.

Teacher Training and Professional Development

Investing in teacher training and professional development is one of the most critical solutions to Morocco’s education challenges. The Moroccan government should provide more training opportunities for teachers to enhance their teaching skills and learn new approaches to teaching.

Additionally, the government should incentivize teachers to work in rural areas by providing them with better salaries, housing, and other benefits. This approach would help address the shortage of qualified teachers in rural areas and provide students with better access to quality education.

Children in a classroom in Morocco. Photo by Antonio Cinotti.

Solutions to Morocco’s Educational Challenges

Investing in Teacher Training

One of the most critical solutions to Morocco’s education challenges is investing in teacher training. The Moroccan government should provide more training opportunities for teachers to enhance their teaching skills and learn new approaches to teaching.

Additionally, the government should incentivize teachers to work in rural areas by providing them with better salaries, housing, and other benefits. This approach would help address the shortage of qualified teachers in rural areas and provide students with better access to quality education.

Legal Basis for the Solution:

According to Article 26 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, “Everyone has the right to education.” The right to education is also recognized in several international human rights treaties, including the International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) and the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC). Both of these treaties recognize the right to education as a fundamental human right that should be accessible to everyone, regardless of gender, social class, or geographic location.

Expanding Access to Education

To increase access to education in Morocco, the government should consider implementing policies that target children from disadvantaged backgrounds. These policies may include financial assistance programs, such as scholarships or subsidies, to help families cover the cost of education.

The Moroccan government can also partner with non-governmental organizations and other stakeholders to expand access to education in rural areas. This approach could involve building new schools, providing transportation to and from school, and ensuring that schools have access to resources and materials needed to provide quality education.

Updating the Curriculum and Teaching Methods

To improve the quality of education in Morocco, the government must update the curriculum and teaching methods to align with the needs of the modern workforce. This could involve incorporating more practical skills, such as computer literacy, into the curriculum. The government should also promote project-based learning, which encourages critical thinking and problem-solving skills, rather than rote memorization.

Furthermore, the Moroccan government can collaborate with international organizations, such as UNESCO, to develop new teaching materials and curricula that are more inclusive and relevant to the needs of Moroccan students.

Closing the Gender Gap

Morocco has made significant progress in promoting girls’ education, but there is still a gender gap in enrollment and achievement. To close this gap, the government should focus on improving access to education for girls, particularly in rural areas.

The government can provide incentives for families to send their daughters to school, such as scholarships or subsidies. Additionally, the government can work with non-governmental organizations to create awareness campaigns that promote the importance of girls’ education and address cultural attitudes that prevent girls from accessing education.

International Cooperation

International cooperation is crucial in addressing Morocco’s education challenges. The Moroccan government can collaborate with international organizations, such as the World Bank and UNESCO, to secure funding for education initiatives and gain access to expertise and resources.

Additionally, the Moroccan government can learn from the experiences of other countries that have successfully addressed similar education challenges. For example, Morocco can look to neighboring countries, such as Tunisia and Algeria, that have made significant progress in improving access to education and promoting gender equality in education.


Morocco’s education system is facing several challenges, including the quality of education, access to education, curriculum and teaching methods, and gender inequality. While the government has made efforts to address these challenges, more needs to be done to ensure that all Moroccan children have access to quality education.

To improve the quality of education in Morocco, the government should invest in teacher training, expand access to education, update the curriculum and teaching methods, and close the gender gap in enrollment and achievement. Additionally, international cooperation is crucial in addressing these challenges, and the Moroccan government should collaborate with international organizations and learn from the experiences of other countries that have successfully addressed similar education challenges.

By addressing these challenges, Morocco can improve the prospects of its young people, promote economic growth, and build a brighter future for the country.