Input for a report on promoting human rights and the Sustainable Development Goals through transparent, accountable and efficient public service delivery

Written by Caren Thomas, Olimpia Guidi and Sterre Merel Krijnen

This report is a Submission to the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights on the state of the issue for India, The Netherlands, New Zealand and Venezuela.

What are the main challenges identified in your country/region about public service delivery?


The main challenges with regards to education as a public service delivery include marginalisation of communities, funding in schools, public-private partnership model, capacity within educational institutions, quality standards, student-teacher ratio and lack of infrastructure are commonly encountered.

The Netherlands

The first challenge is the teacher shortage, causing a practical barrier to the equal delivery of quality education. In the academic year of 2021-2022, primary education experienced a lack of 9.2%, specialised primary education a shortage of 15.6%, secondary education a deficit of 23.1% and specialised secondary education a need of 9.7%. Compared to the preceding year, the scarcity was exacerbated except for technical secondary education.1 The insufficiency has repercussions for learning opportunities through class disruptions, employment of inadequately qualified instructors, and discontinuing of certain subjects.2 This impacts students disparately: schools in larger cities with a more complex student population face higher shortages than the average percentage.3

New Zealand

The main challenges to education as a public service delivery include intercultural education, indigenous communities and its educational policies, child poverty, COVID-19 educational implications and challenges in disability education initiatives.


Venezuela’s enduring economic crisis has left an indelible mark on its educational system. Characterised by hyperinflation, currency devaluation, and a scarcity of resources, this crisis has taken a toll on schools. Beyond crumbling infrastructure, students often attend classes without desks or chairs due to severe funding shortages. The scarcity of textbooks, school supplies, and even necessities like paper and pencils has become the norm, significantly compromising the quality of education provided to the students.

You can download the full report in this link.



1 Van Aalst et al. (2023). De Staat van het Onderwijs. Onderwijsinspectie. 30-31.

2 Onderwijsraad. (2023). Schaarste schuurt. Onderwijsraad. 7.

3 Van Aalst et al. (2023). De Staat van het Onderwijs. Onderwijsinspectie. 30.