Montenegro Report Summary 2022

Paul Schamp


  • Education system faces multiple challenges over chronic shortage in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM fields) graduates.
  • While there is an increase in the coverage of Roma children in primary and secondary education, a drop in preschool and university education is apparent.
  • Quality of Roma education remains of great concern
    • Roma registered with the National Employment Bureau, 96% have the lowest level of education and less than 1% are educated to secondary level. This limits the range of employment opportunities.
  • Little improvement post-COVID to advance reforms on quality of education
    • Quality and relevance of education system, including lack of practical experience of graduates from vocational and higher education, remain key challenges
    • Occupational mismatch is high in tertiary education graduates
    • Montenegro must adopt a costed plan for wide ranging education reforms including inclusive education and improving access to quality education at all education levels
    • Implement the new strategy on early and preschool education 2021-2025 to improve preschool enrolment for all children
    • Finalize then initiate the national vocational education and training (VET) implementation plan 2022-2023 of the VET strategy 2020-2024, as well as putting in place the evaluation mechanism of practical learning at VET and higher education levels.
  • Preschool enrolment rate stood at 48.71% in 2020-2021, still well below the EU 95% target
    • Effected by the COVID-context
  • Number of children with disabilities in both preschool and primary education increased by 21% and 7%.
  • Government approved in December 2021 the strategy for digitalization for education (2022-2027), which is fully aligned with the EU digital education action plan
  • Montenegro still does not have a qualitative, budgeted, multi-annual education strategy and plan for sustainable reforms.
  • Free transport was provided for 600 primary school students
  • Montenegro must align more with the Poznan Declaration on Roma integration in order to fully implement the strategy for inclusive education 2019-2025.
  • New strategy on early and preschool education was adopted in Q4 2021 and its implementation started including support to all preschool institutions for conducting campaign on enrolment, capacity building of staff to implement the parenting program, a workshop on partnerships with Roma and Egyptian families.
  • Ministry of Education, Science, Culture and Sports revised strategy for higher education to cover the period 2022-2026 and draft a new law on higher education. However, their adoption is pending and tangible results are not yet in place
  • Developing a structured monitoring and evaluation of practical education in higher education programs remains to be an area that requires specific attention.