Unlocking Venezuela’s future: Addressing Primary Educational Challenges

Written by Olimpia Guidi

Education stands as the cornerstone of a nation’s future, casting a guiding light on the path to development, prosperity, and a brighter tomorrow. The pursuit of knowledge is not just a fundamental human right but a critical catalyst for individual, societal, and economic progress worldwide, transcending borders to unlock opportunities for personal growth and national success. In Venezuela, at the heart of South America, the imperative of education becomes even more pronounced due to the nation’s myriad political, economic, and social challenges. 

This article will delve into the primary challenges within Venezuela’s education system, from funding shortages to deteriorating infrastructure, plummeting enrollment, and diminishing educational quality. These challenges serve as a wake-up call, demanding a closer examination of Venezuela’s educational landscape (Marquez, 2023).Venezuela’s education woes are tightly woven into its past, present, and future fabric. By proactively addressing these issues, the nation can reinvigorate its education system and, by extension, its prospects.

Historical Context

Venezuela’s educational system mirrors the nation’s complex history. It’s vital to traverse the educational past to understand its current challenges. Before the Spanish conquest, indigenous cultures had their knowledge transmission methods. In the 16th century, Spanish colonists introduced significant changes. The Catholic Church established educational institutions to convert and educate the native population (Haggerty, 1990).

In the early 19th century, Venezuela’s fight for independence recognised education as a nation-building tool. In 1827, under Simón Bolívar’s leadership, a pioneering statute was enacted, laying the foundation for a public education system and primary and secondary schools (Bushnell, 1983). The 20th century brought educational expansion and illiteracy eradication (Gonzales, 2019), altering curricula and enhancing teacher training.

However, recent decades have seen Venezuela’s educational system grapple with economic crises, political turmoil, and budget constraints, impacting its stability and quality. Reforms were introduced in response to these challenges, yielding mixed outcomes. The introduction of the Higher Education Law in 2010 was part of a broader set of education reforms. Unfortunately, these reforms, including changes in university autonomy and regulations for social inclusion, faced implementation challenges.

The law’s impact raised concerns about academic freedom and compromised the quality of education in the higher education sector, contributing to the overall challenges within Venezuela’s educational system. This connection between historical context and contemporary reforms highlights the complexity of the issues facing the nation’s education system.

Current Educational Challenges

In Venezuela’s contemporary educational landscape, several challenges undermine the holistic development of the nation’s youth. These complex issues are deeply intertwined with political and economic turmoil, affecting access to education and financial resources. The following sections will delve into these problems, exploring their consequences and the ongoing search for effective solutions.

Infrastructure and Maintenance Issues

The deteriorating infrastructure of educational institutions threatens the basic foundations of high-quality education in Venezuela. The safety and supportive learning environment essential to fostering great education has been compromised by deteriorating school structures and poor upkeep (Marquez, 2023). For instance, many schools in Caracas, the nation’s capital, have dilapidated infrastructure, including leaking roofs and collapsing walls.

In addition, 85% of public schools lack internet access, 69% experience severe electrical shortages, and 45% lack running water (World Bank, 2023). These startling figures highlight the critical need for infrastructure renewal to provide Venezuela’s pupils with a secure and supportive learning environment.

Worries have been expressed about the infrastructure problem, which not only jeopardises the well-being of educators working within these unstable premises but also looms over the holistic growth of children. Apprehensions have arisen regarding the possible impacts of this challenge on students’ psychological well-being and physical security. It is imperative to address these multifaceted infrastructural challenges to ensure that students can learn in a safe, supportive, and conducive environment, which is fundamental to their educational journey.

Brain Drain and Teacher Shortages

Venezuela’s educational system grapples with a two-pronged challenge stemming from teachers’ scarcity and inadequate income. This dilemma is exacerbated by the ‘brain drain’ – the departure of educated professionals seeking better prospects abroad – and the consequent shortage of qualified educators. Particularly evident in regions like Mérida, once a vibrant university town, this loss of skilled teachers has left schools in a state of understaffing, resulting in significant imbalances in student-teacher ratios (The World Factbook, 2022).

The scarcity of educators with the necessary qualifications further compounds the issue. Some teachers have abandoned the profession or sought opportunities abroad due to wage disparities and difficult working conditions (Zea, 2020). The high student-teacher ratios alone pose a significant burden, but the exodus of talent exacerbates the problem, hindering the ability to deliver targeted instruction and effective pedagogical engagement.

It is essential to underscore that the shortage of teachers in Venezuela directly results from the ‘brain drain’ and the inadequate compensation provided to educators. Many teachers, unable to make a decent living on their salaries, have resorted to strikes and protests in response to this dire situation. This twofold dilemma significantly compounds the challenges faced by the educational system, raising serious concerns about the continuity and quality of education in the nation.

Venezuelan Refugees in Brazil, 2018. Photo by Romério Cunha / Casa Civil Presidência da República via Flickr

Impact of the Economic Crisis                          

Funding for the education sector has dramatically decreased due to Venezuela’s economic crisis. The lack of money leaves schools with few resources to deliver high-quality education and impacts the provision of necessary services and teacher salaries. Many schools find it challenging to keep up with basic maintenance, much less update their curricula or invest in cutting-edge technology.

The government’s ability to fund education investments has also been limited since other budgetary priorities like infrastructure and healthcare have taken precedence (UNESCO, 2023). Because of this, efforts to deliver a high-quality education are hampered, and funding for education is disrupted.

Furthermore, the financial crisis has reached a point where many parents find it increasingly challenging to afford to send their children to school. The economic hardships have pushed families to make agonising choices, sometimes prioritising essentials like food and shelter over their children’s education (Sanchez & Rodriguez, 2019).

This heartbreaking reality has led to declining student enrollment as more children are forced to stay out of school due to financial constraints. It also highlights a worrisome trend where access to education is no longer a guarantee for many Venezuelan children, further deepening the educational challenges faced by the country.

The financial crisis has not only impacted education spending but has also restricted the ability of families to provide their children with the fundamental right to education.

Political Instability and Impact on Education

Political unrest in Venezuela has developed into a recurrent and disruptive force that significantly impacts the educational system. The sudden closure of schools, the postponement of courses, and the relocation of pupils are characteristics of these situations.The unpredictability of such occurrences adds a chaotic element to the educational environment, leaving students and teachers unsure about the continuation of their academic endeavours.

The country’s approach to education has suffered from a lack of continuity and coherence, one of its most severe effects due to this political unrest.Every time a new leadership is appointed, educational policies are revised, resulting in a fractured and fragmented foundation for education. It is difficult to execute long-term strategies for improvement because of these frequent changes that disturb the educational ecology (Education World, 2023).

This puts teachers and students in limbo and makes it harder to provide high-quality education consistently. Political unrest disrupts the operation of the educational system and affects students’ educational experiences in a long-lasting way.

In addition, the effects of the unrest transcend far beyond the short-term interruptions to Venezuela’s educational system. The nation’s future is now in doubt due to the instability, which prevents the growth of an educated and skilled labour force due to ongoing changes in educational and political policies. The potential for advancement in the country is jeopardised as pupils struggle with missed classes and teachers battle to keep up with ever-shifting mandates. Political unrest’s long-term effects on education are felt in the classroom and Venezuela’s broader socioeconomic prospects, making it difficult for its population to navigate an unsteady educational environment.

Efforts and Initiatives

The government of Venezuela continues to deny the terrible condition of the educational system in the nation. The prospects for Venezuelan school children would be quite bleak if not for the brave efforts of foreign humanitarian groups, private charities, and the helpful aid from parents and local volunteers. These youngsters, who lack access to school, will have an unclear future and will be more vulnerable to exploitation. Numerous other organisations are stepping forward to start programs to change the situation due to the government’s apparent unwillingness to confront the problems in the educational system.

Among them is UNICEF, a leading advocate for children’s rights worldwide. Their 2021 initiatives cover a variety of crucial activities:

• Balanced School Meals: To promote the healthy development of over 110,000 students, balanced school meals are provided.

• School Supplies: Providing more than 304,000 kids with necessary school supplies can make their educational journey easier.

• Life Skills Development: Through specialised programs, equipping more than 50,000 teenagers with useful life skills.

• Preparing more than 10,000 teachers through programs, such as those geared toward a safe return to school.

• Support for Teachers: Enabling nearly 7,000 teachers to carry out their vital tasks more efficiently by providing them with food incentives, financial aid, and technological equipment.

In addition to UNICEF’s efforts, the Norwegian Refugee Council (NRC) significantly contributes to resolving Venezuela’s educational problems. NRC works with various partners to develop solutions and assist disadvantaged families in keeping their children in school.

NRC is aware of the complicated circumstances of displacement and financial difficulties that frequently drive children out of school. This is especially crucial in light of the socioeconomic crisis that has resulted in a paucity of school supplies, deteriorating infrastructure, and a lack of teachers.

To support students returning to school after lengthy absences, NRC’s holistic approach includes disseminating instructional resources, enhancing teacher training, and improving school infrastructure to improve accessibility and hygiene. These programs address critical issues and highlight the possibility of significant reform in the country’s educational system, offering a glimmer of hope for the future of education in Venezuela.


Significant funding shortfalls, deteriorating infrastructure, dropping enrollment rates, and declining educational standards are some significant issues facing Venezuela’s educational system. It is imperative that these issues are addressed in the context of the nation. When we examine these problems through the prism of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), it becomes clear that they play a crucial role in the trajectory of the nation’s growth. In particular, SDG 4, which aims to guarantee inclusive and high-quality education for all, is closely related to these educational difficulties.

The change in the educational system is crucial for the welfare of the Venezuelan population and possibilities for the future. It is crucial to acknowledge that access to high-quality education is a fundamental human right and a pillar of greater social and economic development, in keeping with the global commitment to the SDGs. Venezuela may navigate a road towards reaching the SDGs and pave the way for a more egalitarian, successful, and promising future for all its residents by making significant efforts to solve these educational difficulties.

  1. Bushnell, D. (1983). The Last Dictator-ship: Betrayal or Consummation? The Hispanic American Historical Review, 63(1), pp.65–105. https://doi.org/10.2307/2515359
  • Haggerty, R.A. (1990). Venezuela: A Country Study. Washington: GPO for the Library of Congress.
  • Marquez, H. (2023). Venezuela’s Educational System Heading Towards State of Total Collapse. Inter Press Service.
  • Norwegian Refugee Council. (2022). NRC in Venezuela.
  • Sanchez, E., Rodriguez, L. (2019). 4 Ways the Venezuelan Crisis is Affecting Children’s Education.  Global Citizen.
  • The World Factbook. (2022). Explore All Countries Venezuela.
  • UNESCO. (2023). Country Profile: Venezuela.
  • World Bank. (2023). Education in Venezuela.
  • Garcia Zea, D. (2020). Brain drains in Venezuela: the scope of the human capital crisis. Human Resource Development International, 23(2), pp.188-195.

Featured Image: Venezuela, 2016. Photo by tomscoffin via Flickr

Educational Challenges in Syria

The Borgen Project: ‘The Education Crisis in Syria’ accessible in <https://borgenproject.org/education-crisis-in-syria/>

Syria’s educational system has faced challenges for a long time, but the situation improved before the war’s outbreak in 2011. In the decades that preceded the crisis, the educational sector in Syria was witnessing improvements concerning school and university enrolments. Nevertheless, the Syrian government was, at the time, taking initiatives and showing interest in fighting illiteracy as well as increasing the number of primary and preparatory schools throughout the country. 

Following the outbreak of the civil war, Syrian children of all ages were left without access to education. According to recent data published, there are more than 2.4 million Syrian children currently out of school.


Syrian children are currently facing several challenges that make it extremely difficult to attend their school or continue their education. The conflict has led to people’s displacement from their homes, poverty, and the inability of families to pay for school materials. In addition, the Syrian civil war has dangerously normalized and dramatically increased the issue of child labour. The stories shared by some of the affected children highlight the gravity of their situation. Issa, a 12-year-old boy, expressed his feeling of bitterness when he could not attend school for years after his family was displaced due to the war. Or Salim, a victim of displacement and child labour who was forced to seek refuge in Lebanon, where he currently works daily carrying potato bags. 

Albeit the employment of children under the age of 15 is illegal under Syrian legislation, no prominent governmental initiatives have been taken in the past few years to address this issue. However, UNICEF is taking steps to tackle the problem by adopting and implementing friendly policies designed to assist Syrian children in the enjoyment of their rights. 

A 2012 International Labour Organisation report recommended the Syrian national legislation to reform and impose further regulatory norms in the field of children’s work. The report also highlights how Syrian penalty laws are not severe enough to prevent employers from hiring children. Although the Syrian crisis slowed down the ILO’s work, in 2018, it adopted a ‘multi-sectoral approach’ to prevent child labour. This approach is meant to protect children’s rights to education and livelihood. It is also led and coordinated by several parties, including the Syrian Ministry of Social Affairs and Labour, as well as the United Nations. Perhaps this multi-sided tactic, including a governmental representative, will reduce the number of children who are working rather than attending school. 

Unfortunately, Syria’s educational system faces other challenges as well. One of these is the limited access to electricity. The electrical energy infrastructure in Syria was damaged severely after the crisis, leaving most cities in the country, such as Aleppo and Damascus, without electricity for most hours of the day. Most schools in Syria were affected, and students had to struggle in dark classrooms. However, the European Civil Protection and Humanitarian Aid Operations (ECHO) and UNICEF intervened in some places and saved the situation. For instance, in Aleppo, ECHO and UNICEF supplied 30 schools with solar panels, a successful step that positively changed the situation for students and teachers.

Nonetheless, implementing solar panels in all schools throughout the country is lengthy and costly. Since students of all age groups need electricity at home to prepare for exams, it would also fail to solve the issue in its entirety. The situation is undoubtedly precarious, but the government can take initiatives to assist students to study in more adequate conditions. Both the UN and ECHO could provide public city libraries with solar panels for electricity generation. This would allow students to learn in quiet and well-lit surroundings, thus contributing to their educational success. 

Another major challenge in Syria’s educational sector is the severe lack of fuel which directly affects students’ capabilities to access educational institutions. The Covid-19 pandemic, in addition, forced schools and universities to shut down for months, leading to the dropping out of a vast number of students. 

As mentioned above, UNICEF is taking several steps to improve these circumstances and combat the so-called ‘lost generation’. According to recently published data, UNICEF has not only been active in Syria throughout the past ten years but has also helped over 1.5 million children since 2016 by providing them with study materials and better chances for education. Furthermore, UNESCO has played an active role in Syria by launching several platforms to support Syrian children, psychologically as well as educationally. An example of this can be seen in the creation of “The Second Chance Program” by CapED, which assists the students who failed their final exams in retaking these during the summer, thereby providing them with a second opportunity to move onto the next grade. 

Overall, the situation in Syria is chaotic and complex, and governmental administrations fail to prioritise education. According to a report published by The Middle East Institute in 2022, the limited and short-term nature of the funding, insufficiency and inefficiency of data collection, and the delays in the embracement of new approaches are significant factors hampering Syria’s educational success. Education in Syria is in dire need of funding and rebuilding to improve students’ situations and guarantee their basic human rights. 

Cover image -Photo by Omar Ram on Unsplash

Written by Noor Mousa 

Edited by Olga Ruiz Pilato 

Introduzione a “La situazione dei bambini nel mondo 2021”

1. Il momento di agire

A seguito della pandemia di Covid-19, il mondo ha assistito a un aumento significativo dei problemi di salute mentale nei bambini e nelle loro famiglie. La pandemia ha evidenziato come gli eventi in tutto il mondo possano influenzare il mondo dentro le nostre teste. Tuttavia, ha anche offerto l’opportunità di ricostruire migliorandoci. Secondo il documento, alla comunità internazionale è stata offerta un’opportunità storica per impegnarsi, comunicare e agire per promuovere, proteggere e prendersi cura della salute mentale di una generazione.


2. La sfida ignorata

I problemi di salute mentale sono ancora considerati da molti leader governativi internazionali come sfide minori. Alla luce di ciò, i governi hanno sistematicamente sottofinanziato la salute mentale e non sono stati disposti ad investire di più nella questione. Tuttavia, gli studi dimostrano che le economie nazionali beneficiano di una buona salute mentale della loro popolazione. Per perseguire prosperità e pari opportunità, è importante riconoscere la connessione tra salute mentale e fisica e il benessere delle persone, e l’importanza della salute mentale nel plasmare la vita. Quest’ultimo punto è stato riconosciuto negli Obiettivi di Sviluppo Sostenibile (OSS). L’approccio negligente nei confronti di questo problema è molto costoso per le economie della comunità internazionale. Infatti, il mondo paga circa 387,2 miliardi di dollari all’anno, secondo i calcoli di questo documento fatti da David McDaid e Sara Evans-Lacko del Dipartimento di politica sanitaria della London School of Economies and Political Science. In altre parole, le economie nazionali perdono l’enorme quantità di 387,2 miliardi di dollari in potenziale umano che non contribuisce.

3. Intervista alle persone interessate

È importante ascoltare le esperienze, preoccupazioni e idee di bambini e adolescenti riguardo la salute mentale. L’UNICEF ha collaborato con i ricercatori del Global Early Adolescent Study presso la Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health (JHU) per ospitare discussioni di gruppo focalizzate sulla salute mentale e il benessere. Il progetto è sostenuto dal Wellcome Trust. Da febbraio a giugno 2021, i partner locali hanno facilitato le discussioni di gruppo fra adolescenti dai 10 ai 14 anni e dai 15 ai 19 anni in Belgio, Cile, Cina, Repubblica Democratica del Congo, Egitto, Indonesia, Giamaica, Giordania, Kenya, Malawi, Svezia, Svizzera e Stati Uniti. Le discussioni si sono basate su una guida sviluppata da UNICEF, JHU e partner locali. I dati qualitativi raccolti durante le discussioni sono stati codificati utilizzando un approccio di analisi tematico induttivo e perfezionati durante il processo di analisi dei dati.


4. Richieste di aiuto inascoltate

In tutto il mondo, sondaggi evidenziano che quattro persone su cinque credono che nessuno dovrebbe affrontare le sfide della salute mentale da solo. In aggiunta, l’83% dei giovani (tra i 15 ei 24 anni) ha convenuto che la soluzione migliore è condividere le proprie esperienze e cercare sostegno. Secondo un sondaggio condotto dall’UNICEF e dalla Gallup in 21 paesi nella prima metà del 2021, una media di un giovane su cinque (19%) ha ammesso di sentirsi spesso depresso o di avere scarso interesse a impegnarsi in attività.


5. Il momento per la leadership

Al centro dell’incapacità delle nostre società di rispondere ai bisogni di salute mentale di bambini, adolescenti e operatori sanitari c’è l’assenza di leadership e impegno. Abbiamo bisogno dell’impegno, soprattutto finanziario, dei leader globali e nazionali e di un’ampia gamma di soggetti interessati (stakeholders) che rifletta l’importante ruolo dei determinanti sociali e di altro tipo nell’aiutare a plasmare positivamente la salute mentale.

Tradotto da Francisca Orrego Galarce da The State of the World’s Children: The Introduction

El Estado Mundial de la Infancia: Introducción

Resumen de la introducción sobre “El Estado Mundial de la Infancia 2021”


  1. El momento de actuar


Como resultado de la pandemia de Covid-19, el mundo ha sido testigo de un aumento significativo de los problemas de salud mental en los niños y sus familias. La pandemia destacó cómo los eventos en todo el mundo pueden afectar nuestro mundo interior. Sin embargo, la pandemia ofreció la oportunidad de reconstruir mejor. Según el informe, se ha brindado a la comunidad internacional una oportunidad histórica para comprometerse, comunicarse y tomar medidas para promover, proteger y cuidar la salud mental de nuevas generaciones.


  1. El desafío ignorado


Los problemas de salud mental aún no reciben, gubernamentalmente, la atención que deberían. Los gobiernos han estado subfinanciando sistemáticamente la salud mental y muchos no están dispuestos a invertir más en ella. Estudios muestran que las economías nacionales se benefician de la salud mental positiva de su población. Para poder prosperar e igualar oportunidades, es importante reconocer tanto la conexión entre la salud mental y física y el bienestar, como la importancia de la salud mental en la configuración de los resultados de la vida. Esto último fue reconocido en los Objetivos de Desarrollo Sostenible (ODS). El enfoque negligente de este asunto es muy costoso para las economías de la comunidad internacional. De hecho, el mundo paga aproximadamente 387 200 millones de dólares americanos al año, según los cálculos de David McDaid y Sara Evans-Lacko, del Departamento de Políticas Sanitarias de la Escuela de Economía y Ciencias Políticas de Londres, para este informe. En otras palabras, las economías nacionales pierden la enorme cantidad de 387 200 millones de dólares estadounidenses en potencial humano no aportado.

  1. Entrevista de la persona de interés


Es importante escuchar las experiencias, inquietudes e ideas de los niños y adolescentes cuando se trata de salud mental. UNICEF se asoció con investigadores del Estudio Global sobre la Primera Infancia de la Escuela de Salud Pública Johns Hopkins Bloomberg (JHU) para organizar debates de grupos focales sobre salud mental y bienestar. El apoyo para el proyecto provino de Wellcome Trust. De febrero a junio de 2021, los socios locales facilitaron discusiones de grupos focales para adolescentes de 10 a 14 años y de 15 a 19 años en Bélgica, Chile, China, República Democrática del Congo, Egipto, Indonesia, Jamaica, Jordania, Kenia, Malawi, Suecia, Suiza y Estados Unidos. Las discusiones siguieron una guía desarrollada por UNICEF, JHU y socios locales. Partiendo de estas discusiones, los datos cualitativos se codificaron utilizando un enfoque de análisis temático inductivo y se refinaron a lo largo del proceso de análisis de datos.


  1. Llamadas no escuchadas


En todo el mundo, las encuestas destacan que cuatro de cada cinco personas en todo el mundo creen que nadie debería tener que enfrentarse a los problemas de salud mental por su cuenta. En cambio, una media del 83% de los jóvenes (de 15 a 24 años) estuvo de acuerdo en que la mejor solución es compartir experiencias y buscar apoyo. Según una encuesta realizada por UNICEF y Gallup en 21 países en a principios del 2021, una media de uno de cada cinco jóvenes (19%) informó que a menudo se sentía deprimido o carecía de interés con respecto a participar en actividades.


  1. Tiempo de liderazgo


En el centro del fracaso de nuestras sociedades para responder a las necesidades de salud mental de los niños, adolescentes y cuidadores se encuentra la ausencia de liderazgo y compromiso. Necesitamos el compromiso, especialmente el compromiso financiero, de los líderes mundiales y nacionales y de una amplia gama de partidos interesados que refleje el importante papel de los determinantes sociales y de otro tipo para ayudar a dar forma a los resultados de salud mental.


Translated by Olga Ruiz Pilato from [The State of the World’s Children: The Introduction]