The following report has been drafted by Broken Chalk as a stakeholder contribution to the Republic of Chile.
- In Chile, the constitution and several education acts build up the legal framework of the Chilean education system. Based on these education acts, since 2003, primary and secondary education has been compulsory and free for children aged six and up. [i]
- primary and secondary education are eight and four years, respectively. Secondary education is divided into two tracks: a general academic curriculum in the humanities and sciences and one with a vocational curriculum.[ii]
- The Chilean educational system is decentralised and consists of three types of schools: municipal, private subsidised, and private non-subsidized. The Department of Municipal Education manages municipal schools, while private persons or institutions manage the other two kinds of schools.[iii]
- 77% of Chilean 3-5-year-old children are enrolled in early childhood education, although the figure is slightly below the OECD average in 2022.[iv]
- Based on data collected by the World Bank, Chile impressively achieved a youth literacy of 99% and an adult literacy of 97% in 2021.[v]
- Aligning with gender stereotypes, Chilean women are underrepresented in subjects like science, technology, engineering, and mathematics when entering tertiary education. Women accounted for less than 20% of new entrants in engineering, manufacturing, construction programs, and communication technologies. In comparison, they accounted for 83% of new entrants to the field of education, a sector traditionally dominated by women in Chile.[vi]
- In Chile, there are significant differences in educational attainment across subnational regions due to uneven economic conditions and the pattern of internal migrations, resulting in differences in educational opportunities.[vii]
- Although Chile was severely affected by the pandemic, the country learned from this experience and launched an initiative with UNESCO to strengthen teachers’ digital competence.[viii]
- As Chile has signed and ratified the ICESCR, the CEDAW and the CRC, Broken Chalk urges Chile to eliminate gender stereotypes existing in society and make de facto changes.[ix]
By Ximeng Zhang
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[i] Nuffic, “Education System Chile Described and Compared with the Dutch System,” January 2015, https://www.nuffic.nl/sites/default/files/2020-08/education-system-chile.pdf. (Accessed 11 September 2023).
[ii] OECD. “Attracting, Developing and Retaining Effective Teachers OECD Activity Country Background Report for Chile,” November 2003. https://www.oecd.org/chile/26742861.pdf. (Accessed 11 September 2023).
[iv] OECD, “ Education at a Glance 2022: OECD Indicators, Chile” www.oecd-ilibrary.org, 2022,https://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/sites/5c6d0921-en/index.html?itemId=/content/component/5c6d0921-en. (Accessed 11 September 2023).
[v] the World Bank, “Literacy Rate, Youth Total (% of People Ages 15-24) – Chile | Data,” data.worldbank.org, n.d., https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.ADT.1524.LT.ZS?locations=CL.(Accessed 11 September 2023).
[vi] OECD, “ Education at a Glance 2022: OECD Indicators, Chile” www.oecd-ilibrary.org, 2022,https://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/sites/5c6d0921-en/index.html?itemId=/content/component/5c6d0921-en. (Accessed 11 September 2023).
[viii] UNESCO, “New Initiative by UNESCO and the Chilean Ministry of Education Will Strengthen Teachers’ Digital Skills,” Unesco.org, May 5, 2023, https://www.unesco.org/en/articles/new-initiative-unesco-and-chilean-ministry-education-will-strengthen-teachers-digital-skills. (Accessed 11 September 2023).
[ix] OHCHR, “Treaty Bodies Treaties,” tbinternet.ohchr.org, https://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/15/TreatyBodyExternal/Treaty.aspx?CountryID=35&Lang=EN. (Accessed 11 September 2023).