Educational challenges in South Korea

Written by Camille Boblet—Ledoyen

South Korea, or more officially the Republic of Korea, is a country in Southeast Asia, the tenth largest economy in the world and a middle power. To fully understand the educational challenges of contemporary South Korea, we need to remember the historical context: a former Japanese colony until 1945, the Korean peninsula is an underdeveloped region with an estimated adult literacy rate of 22%. Pre-1945 Korea was a peninsula with very rigid social classes, influenced by Confucian values. The democratization of education beginning in the 1960s – largely driven by the containment of communism – resulted in an increase in the adult literacy rate to 87.6 per cent in 1970, 93 per cent in the late 1980s and 98.8 per cent today. The Korean education system is now ranked 7th in the world in the PISA ranking (Average Score of Mathematics, Science and Reading, 2018) and 6 Korean universities are among the top 200 in the world (Times Higher Education, 2023). Despite all these statistics which show a spectacular evolution, the South Korean system remains deeply unequal: this inequality of opportunity inherited from elitist Confucian values is today the main challenge for the country. Fifty years of economic and industrial development have certainly made Korea the eleventh largest country in the world; however, the social question was completely overshadowed. While the demonstrations of June 1987 enabled the country to become a democracy, they did not introduce the notion of the Welfare-State.

Korean students during Suneung exam. Photo by Koreaners.


The educational system in Korea places an almost inordinate emphasis on standardized tests. South Korea’s university entrance exam, called Suneung, is widely regarded as the most important test in the country. The exam, which is taken by high school seniors, determines a student’s eligibility for admission to top universities in the country. The emphasis on the test has created a culture of intense competition, which places a significant amount of pressure on students. The pressure to perform well on the Suneung has led to a phenomenon known as “exam hell.” Students are expected to spend long hours studying, attending cram schools, and sacrificing their social lives in order to prepare for the exam. This exam has no equivalent in Western educational systems. There is no national exam in the United States of America to get into higher education. In Canada and Europe, there are high school graduation exams: the High School Diploma in Canada, the Abitur in Germany, the Baccalauréat in France, the Maturità in Italy and the Bachillerato in Spain. In South Korea, the exam is portrayed as “having the opportunity to make or break your future.” According to the Ahn’s Presidential Advisory Council on Education, Science and Technology, more than 200 students committed suicide in 2009 and about 150 the following year. The course of this exam even gives rise to unique situations:

“14,000 police officers are mobilized to ensure good traffic flow. And there is even an emergency number for latecomers. They call it and a policeman comes to pick up the student at his home to take him to his exam center. […] landings and take-offs are banned in all airports during the language tests because the candidates are listening to recordings.” (Radio France, 2017).

Therefore, the pressure is not only on students, but also on parents who invest heavily in their children’s education, often leading to a financial burden. The emphasis on standardized tests has also led to a narrow curriculum. Schools focus on teaching the material that is likely to be on the test, leading to a lack of emphasis on critical thinking, creativity, and problem-solving skills. The result is a generation of students who may excel in memorization, but struggle when faced with real-world challenges.

We should also point out the lack of diversity in teaching methods. The country has a highly centralized education system, with a focus on rote learning and standardized testing. While this approach has led to high levels of academic achievement, it has also resulted in a lack of creativity and critical thinking skills among students. In recent years, there has been a growing recognition of the need to introduce more diverse teaching methods to encourage creativity and problem-solving skills.

One of the most significant impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on the Korean educational system was the sudden shift to online learning. Students were required to participate in virtual classes to continue their education. This shift to online learning presented numerous challenges, including access to technology, internet connectivity, and the need for teacher training in remote instruction. While many students were able to adapt to online learning, others struggled due to the lack of in-person interaction and support from teachers. The digital divide has been a longstanding issue in the Korean educational system, and the pandemic exacerbated this issue. The Korean government implemented several initiatives to address the digital divide, including providing laptops and tablets to low-income families and expanding access to high-speed internet. However, these efforts were not enough to address the disparities in access to technology and internet connectivity.


One of the most significant challenges facing South Korea’s education system is the intense pressure that students are under. As a country with a Confucian tradition, there was an examination to become a civil servant in Korea called Gwageo. Similar to the imperial examination in China, this selection method was very long prized by the Korean elites until its abolition in 1894. The selection and competition between students is therefore ancient and deeply rooted in Korean society. From a very young age, students are expected to perform at an incredibly high level in order to gain entry into top universities and secure high-paying jobs. This pressure can be so intense that it can lead to mental health issues such as depression and anxiety. Moreover, this pressure on students has led to a culture of cramming and rote memorization rather than a focus on critical thinking and creativity. The level of competition that exists in Europe has nothing to do with that in South Korea. Competition leads to two things among students: considerable inner stress A terrible degradation of human relationships. The other is no longer a fellow man. Korean students do not go to bed before eleven o’clock in the evening, and their school day is hectic. Their minds are focused on work and how to become the best in the class. Everything else is put aside: relationships, music, sports, etc. In the school environment, no one really is a friend. There are only competitors. This competition begins at a young age, with students vying for spots at prestigious elementary schools and continues throughout their academic careers. This competition can be so intense that it can lead to cheating and other unethical behavior in order to gain an advantage.

This competition leads to a number of problems. Firstly, it leads to a lack of diversity in the education system. Students are pushed to excel in certain subjects, such as math and science, at the expense of other subjects, such as the arts and humanities. This focus on certain subjects leads to a lack of well-rounded education. Additionally, the competitive nature of the education system leads to a lack of collaboration among students. Instead of working together to solve problems, students often view their classmates as competitors and are hesitant to share their ideas or knowledge. This lack of collaboration can hinder the development of critical thinking and problem-solving skills.

Focusing on the artistic representations of school in South Korean society makes us aware of the importance given to education. School and more generally school performance are over-represented in films and series (K-Drama). To perform poorly in school or to perform less well in school is perceived by society as a tare and something very shameful, which is the central element of the film Parasite (shooted by Bong Joon-ho, 2019). The main protagonist’s family lives excluded from this society of success, in an unhealthy basement, without money and living from day to day. As the film shows, being poor is a disgrace for the people concerned: if they are poor, it is because they have not worked well. To succeed, you have to work hard: this is the leitmotif of Korean culture. Without hard work, there is no salvation. The 2012 release of the film Pluto by director Shin Su-won caused a lot of reaction and controversy in the country. This highlights several issues of the Korean educational system. All the students in the film are doomed to succeed. And they will do anything to achieve it, even dehumanize the other person and stoop to animal behaviour. The main protagonist feels humiliated in front of prosperous children who are more confident of success than he is. It is this feeling of inferiority that will push him to commit the irreparable. Wealthy students are ready to kill their competitors which is the whole plot of the film: students go crazy, don’t sleep at night, commit acts of rape and humiliation on other students.


The Republic of Korea has one of the highest rates of gender inequality among OECD countries. Women’s labor force participation in 2019 is 60%, 5 percentage points lower than the OECD average. The gender pay gap is a concern: while the OECD average is 12.5%, the gap is 32.5%. While this gap is decreasing (it stood at 41% in 2000), it remains indicative of the gender divide. The Republic of Korea has made progress in terms of gender equality, but still has a long way to go to reach the standards of other developed countries. Gender equality must be promoted from school onwards, which is currently not the case, if at all. If it is not able to ensure that young Korean women students have well-paid jobs with equal pay to men, then the country’s economic dynamism and social welfare will suffer.

Students from low-income families or rural areas often have limited access to quality education and may struggle to compete with their wealthier peers This gap in educational opportunities can lead to a lack of social mobility. Students from low-income families may struggle to get into top universities or secure well-paying jobs, despite their academic abilities. This can lead to a cycle of poverty, as these students may not have the resources or opportunities to improve their situation. The fact that tuition fees are very high (4 million South Korean won, or 3,500 euros per semester) is a serious impediment to education for all and prevents any social climbing. For comparison, the OECD average in terms of tuition fees is 2,800 euros per year.

The South Korean education system has been criticized for its lack of diversity and inclusion. South Korea is a homogeneous society, and this is reflected in its education system. The curriculum is focused on teaching Korean history, culture, and language, with little emphasis on other cultures or languages. The lack of diversity in the education system can lead to a narrow-minded view of the world. Students are not exposed to different cultures, religions, or ways of thinking, which can limit their ability to be open-minded and empathetic. The education system in South Korea has also been criticized for its lack of support for students with disabilities. According to a report by the Korea Institute for Special Education, only 31.6% of students with disabilities attend regular schools, while the rest attend special schools. The lack of inclusion can lead to a sense of isolation and stigmatization for these students, who may feel excluded from mainstream society.


South Korea’s society is well known for the importance of private tutoring (hagwon). Private tutoring has become a necessary part of education in South Korea, as parents feel that it is the only way to ensure their children’s success. According to a report by the Korean Educational Development Institute, nearly 80% of South Korean students attend hagwon. Private tutoring is offered in a variety of subjects, including math, science, English, and Korean language. The cost of private tutoring can vary depending on the subject and the qualifications of the tutor, with some parents paying large sums of money to provide their children with extra support outside of school. The high demand for hagwon has led to a rise in the cost of private tutoring, which can be a financial burden on families. The pressure to succeed academically can be intense, with many students experiencing high levels of stress and anxiety. The cost of hagwon can be as high as 30% of a family’s income, putting pressure on parents to work longer hours or take on additional jobs to pay for their children’s education. The reliance on private tutoring has also led to a lack of trust in the public education system. Parents feel that the public schools are not doing enough to prepare their children for the standardized tests, leading to a loss of faith in the system. This has also led to a lack of support for teachers, who are often blamed for their children’s lack of success.

Students from wealthier families are indeed more likely to be able to afford high-quality private tutoring, which can give them an advantage over their peers from lower-income families. This leads to a cycle of disadvantage, with students from lower-income families struggling to keep up with their peers and falling further behind.


While the Korean government implemented several initiatives to address these issues, the pandemic has underscored the need for greater investment in technology and support for disadvantaged students, as well as a greater emphasis on social and emotional learning. All things considered, the pandemic was the revelation of all the dysfunctions and challenges of the South Korean educational system.

The foremost concern of the Korean government should be tackling gender gap. should promote gender awareness and gender-sensitive education in schools, as well as develop educational programs that challenge traditional gender roles and promote gender equality. Violence against women is a significant issue in South Korea: the government should develop laws and policies that protect women from violence, as well as promote public awareness campaigns that challenge harmful attitudes towards women. The civil society and the government must work hand in hand to change cultural norms that reinforce gender inequality. This can be done through public campaigns, media messages, and the promotion of gender equality in popular culture. South Korea’s educational system could introduce policies to encourage more girls to pursue STEM fields. This could include offering scholarships and financial support to girls studying STEM subjects, as well as providing mentorship opportunities and career guidance. Additionally, schools could work to eliminate gender biases in the classroom and provide female students with positive role models in STEM fields.

The existence of an exam as stressful and complex as the Suneung is problematic. The fact that students are committing suicide demonstrates how this system poses a real threat to student well-being. The government should be inspired by foreign evaluation methods, either similar to the United States of America, where the final grade gives an important place to continuous assessment, or similar to the examinations held in Europe, where oral examination is more practiced.

To address the high cost of private tutoring, South Korea’s educational system could introduce policies to provide additional support for students who need it. This could include providing after-school tutoring and study sessions at no cost to students.


Andrea Matles Savada and William Shaw, editors. South Korea: A Country Study. Washington: GPO for the Library of Congress, 1990.

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Agata Lulkowska, “An Oscar for Parasite? The global rise of South Korean film”, The Conversation, January 2020.

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Education in Egypt: Addressing the Barriers to a Better Future

Exams in Egypt – Photo by Egyptian Center for Economic Social Rights

Written by N.Mohamed

Why is it important to educate our children? You have asked the same question before, whether now as a parent or when you were a child asking why should I go to school? Education opens the door to you, it helps you develop the skills needed to live. It widens your horizons and allows you to understand and respect your rights and your duties toward your society, your family, your home and the whole nation.

As an educated person, you become aware of your goals, career and the tools needed to improve your quality of life. We all faced challenges when we were at school and so did our parents, our challenges might not be the same as theirs and what will our children face will also differ from ours but the most important thing is to acknowledge these challenges and work on overcoming them.

The education system in Egypt consists of three phases for children in the age range of 4-14 years old. The first phase is kindergarten for 2 years followed by 6 years in primary then preparatory education for 3 years until secondary education which also lasts for 3 years before the student starts his/her university life.

Statistically and as published by Statista, This graph depicts the literacy rate in Egypt from 2006 to 2021. The literacy rate measures the percentage of people aged 15 and above who can read and write. In 2021, Egypt’s literacy rate was around 73.09 percent. Throughout this article, we will do our best to try and shed some light on the challenges that face education in Egypt, efforts done by the government to try and eradicate them and the image reflected by the local news in the country.

Quality of Education: This is affected by several factors such as the teaching styles considered rigid as it doesn’t encourage the student’s participation throughout the education process. The teacher/student ratio as the density of the pupils in class increased significantly in the past 5 years at the rate of 5.11 per cent between the school years 2015/16 and 2019/20. Adding to this, The infrastructure in some areas especially rural places are not fully prepared for the students. Some of them lack  functional water and sanitation facilities. In addition to what was mentioned above, Egypt now faces a shortage of staff in the educational field which is also considered an important challenge in the quality of education presented to the children.

On the other hand, although the private education sector might not have the same challenges as the public one however it is also of a very high cost that the average Egyptian citizen can’t afford so it is also considered a challenge.

To improve the quality of education and overcome these problems, UNICEF since 1992 is supporting the Ministry of education in Egypt in improving the education journey. This cooperation led to many projects that are helping the education process in Egypt to become better. For example, the Community-Based Education project which is by the help of UNICEF provides access to education to the most vulnerable and disadvantaged children by adopting and scaling up a Community-based Education model.

Also, the government together with the ministry is working on a plan to take efficient decisions. As an example of this that was mentioned in a local newspaper in Egypt, a recent program was issued by the ministry to train 150 thousand teachers to be hired in the next five years as a means to decrease the shortage of staff and improve the teachers/student ratio. Also, in the past few years, the education system in Egypt and under the influence of Corona has transitioned to electronic education out of paper-based education. This will be discussed in more detail later in the article as this is also created a new challenge to education in Egypt that we need to highlight in more detail.

Dropout Rates in Education: Unicef defines dropout as follows “Children who are of educational age do not enrol in school or leave it without completing the educational stage in which they are studying, whether by their desire or as a result of other factors, as well as failure to attend regularly for a year or more.”

Most of the students in Egypt and as you can see in this graph were enrolled in general primary schooling during 2020/2021 about 13.4 million. On the contrary, you can see that a significantly lower number were enlisted in preparatory and general secondary education. This indicates that some students drop out and don’t continue their education after or even during the general primary phase.

The problem of dropouts is considered a major challenge to education. It has negative effects on the family, the society and the nation overall. In my opinion, increasing dropout rates are a consequence of the challenges mentioned in the quality of education however this is not the only factor.

Many studies have been performed to evaluate and understand the main reasons behind this challenge in the education process. These studies also provided general characteristics for the students who drop out of school and these characteristics are Children with limited mental abilities, Students with difficult economic conditions, Children who live in families suffering from social disintegration, Children who are competent but have problems with their teachers or colleagues, Children with special behaviour as a result of social and economic conditions that lead them to be aggressive towards their teachers and classmates.

By looking at data and statistics issued by the Ministry of Education and contained in the Annual Statistics Book 2021/2022. There are several indicators that we need to highlight to better understand this challenge and search for the possible causes. These causes can be summarised as follows:

1- Percentages of school dropouts: The percentage of school dropouts at the primary level in the period from 2019/2020 and 2020/2021 was about 0.2%, of whom 0.17% were girls and 0.23% were boys, compared to 0.25%, including 0.20% for girls, and 0.29% for boys in the period from 2018/2019 and 2019/2020.

The percentage of school dropouts in the preparatory stage in the period from 2019/2020 and 2020/2021 was about 0.87%, of whom 1.10% were girls and 0.66% were boys, compared to 1.73%, including 2.07% girls, and 1.40% boys in the period from 2018/ 2019 and 2019/2020.

Even though the dropout rates are declining and getting better but they still exist. But what we can notice from the graph that shows the dropout rates in the preparatory education phase, the percentage of girls dropping out is near twice that of boys. While it is quite the opposite in the primary education phase. This is an indication that due to social and economic needs, some families force children to work and leave their education so they can help with the income for the whole family. While in the preparatory stage, many families encourage the early marriage of the girls to get rid of their expenses and economic burdens.

This is a very important challenge and several reasons contribute to its increase and these causes are:

  • Economic factors are considered the primary cause of this phenomenon as the lack of the parent’s capability of providing for their children their needs force them to take such actions and harm their future.
  • Social factors reflect the family and the environment that the child lives in which plays an important role, for example some old social customs such as prioritizing boys’ education over girls and early marriage for girls.
  • Educational factors which are already mentioned in the quality of education part at the beginning of this article.

This makes us think, why is dropping out of school considered a challenge or a bad phenomenon that we try to eradicate? What is its impact on society? So to answer this question we will have to look at it from several axes.

  • Economic repercussions as the government spend money and this money is wasted on the students dropping out since the outcome that is expected can’t be achieved since the student is no longer being educated.
  • Educational implications: Education’s role in society is not just about teaching how to read, write and do simple maths. Its main goal is also to reform and impede the social change that is desirable for individuals.
  • Social repercussions: when a child is not in school and at this critical age is being left in the street he is being transformed into a dangerous version that may lead him to do crimes and acts of violence.

The government in Egypt is aware of this issue and is working on getting it to vanish at the soonest as I would like to highlight some of the efforts done by the government to help with this phenomenon eradicated.

  • The 2014 Constitution: Article 19 of the 2014 Constitution expands the right to free education mentioned in previous constitutions, as it states that education is a right for every citizen, and it aims to build the Egyptian character, preserve national identity, and instil the values ​​of citizenship, tolerance and non-discrimination, and the state is committed to.
  • Sustainable Development Strategy 2030 (Education Axis) which we will discuss in detail in the next part of the article.
  • The elaboration of a strategic plan to declare Egypt free of illiteracy by 2030.
  • Expanding the construction of public schools to reduce the density of classes.
  • An online tele-learning platform created by the General Authority for Adult Education during the coronavirus pandemic.

The transition from paper-based to technology-based education in Egypt:

Although the coronavirus pandemic was a disaster on all levels to the whole world, one can’t deny the impact it made on the countries both negative and positive. It was a tough time but at the same time, it was a great opportunity so everyone can stop and think about these questions. How can I keep going when everything around me, stops? How can I continue working/eating/learning/exercising and do everything just like nothing happened? How can I walk out of the pandemic a winner and not a loser?

These questions must have crossed your mind during the past 2 and a half years as the coronavirus and the lockdown was a blessing for some companies and economies for example the e-commerce field and it was not a blessing for others such as the retail stores that still don’t have online stores and depends only on the physical stores. This was also a start for education to move into a technology-based one since learning is essential and even during lockdowns or pandemics it’s important to continue the learning process as education and building the next generation is important for society and the country overall.

In Egypt, the e-learning process started as an execution of the government’s vision that by 2030 education should be of high and international standards and quality, should release a highly up-to-date and skilled member for the society and use technology to implement education and communication between both the teacher and the student. This has been seen by using tablets instead of paper books and using more advanced technologies to deliver the information by the teacher to the student. Although this is considered a huge step however it does create a lot of challenges for the teachers, parents and students which also creates a bigger challenge for the government and the ministry of education.

The system will eradicate the old education system’s ailments by turning the pupils from passive recipients into active participants in the educational process,” said Ahmed Khairy, a spokesman for Egypt’s Ministry of Education, “We are going for a total change of the educational process, instead of introducing minor changes,” he said.

Some local journals considered these challenges an indication of the failure of the whole experiment and some considered this as a challenge to the ministry and that we still need to work on this to consider this a fully successful transition. In any transition period, you see challenges and burdens and that is not considered a failure but opportunities to work on making this better. I will add a few examples below about the challenges that were created during this transition period for clarification.

  • So from the school side, the facilities in Egypt are not fully equipped and prepared for this transition yet as you can see many struggles when it comes to the network quality and the presence of fully trained technicians to deal with when the network is down.
  • The system itself still has a lot of errors that are causing stress to both teachers and students as an example of this is when for any reason the system stops while the student is having an exam there’s a high chance that the student won’t be able to recover his answers that he typed before the system stops or even restart the timer he can rewrite his answers once more.
  • Teachers are not trained or have the required access to control any challenge that the students may face as they’re using their tablets to do the exams.
  • Internet access is still not available in all educational facilities which make these facilities still depend on paper-based approaches with their students.
  • Parents also complained about the type of questions given to the students as it differs from one student to another which is not fair to all students
  • A local paper also mentioned that the same student took advantage of this to cheat on there which will not help provide an accurate evaluation of this experiment to better work on its negatives.

The general secondary exams, which are considered the most important exams in the life of an Egyptian student, are a major burden in this experiment. These exams serve as the sole means of determining a student’s university path. Because this is an important stage, the parents definitely expressed their concerns about implementing the technological approach, believing that it would seriously damage their children’s future and could be the reason that their children’s dreams were not achieved. Due to the importance of this in the life of an Egyptian student, the government extended it to all preuniversity years except general secondary exams. This year, students in this phase will take exams that consist of 85% MCQs and 15% essays. The correction process will be based on new tech to reduce the human factor (and thus reduce human errors during the correction process) and will rely on technology to correct the exams and provide the final grade. According to the Ministry of Education, the exams will be held in June 2023, so we will have to wait and see how things go this year in the hopes that the students will have a fair chance to achieve their dreams and choose the career path they want and prefer.

At the end of this article, I would like to say that it is essential that we emphasize the challenges we face in education, specifically because education is so crucial to shaping the future of the entire world. An educated individual who we assist today will be tomorrow’s doctor, engineer, worker, and every other significant human being who contributes to a better future for our children and ourselves. Investing in our children has always had a positive influence on society and our lives. We, everyone, want to see a better tomorrow, and we should all work together to make that happen. We must make sure that the next generation inherits a healthy environment.


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  • Cover Photo by aboodi vesakaran on Unsplash