CASE OF TURAN AND OTHERS v. TURKEY – a summary of the case

The case highlighted applications mainly concern the arrest and pre-trial detention of the applicants – all of whom were sitting as judges or prosecutors at different types and/or levels of court.

Background to the case were as follows:

  1. During the night of 15 to 16 July 2016 a group of members of the Turkish armed forces calling themselves the “Peace at Home Council” attempted to carry out a military coup aimed at overthrowing the democratically installed National Assembly, government and President of Turkey.
  2. The day after the attempted military coup, the national authorities blamed the attempt on the network linked to Fetullah Gülen, a Turkish citizen living in Pennsylvania (United States of America) and considered to be the leader of FETÖ/PDY.

 

  1. On 16 July 2016 the Bureau for Crimes against the Constitutional Order at the Ankara public prosecutor’s office initiated a criminal investigation ex proprio motu into, inter alios, the suspected members of FETÖ/PDY within the judiciary. According to the information provided by the Government, this investigation against judges and prosecutors, including members of high courts, was initiated in accordance with the provisions of the ordinary law, on the ground that there had been a case of discovery in flagrante delicto falling with the jurisdiction of the assize courts.

 

 

  1. instructions issued to the Directorate General of Security on the same day, the Ankara Chief Public Prosecutor noted that the offence of attempting to overthrow the government and the constitutional order by force was still ongoing and that there was a risk that members of the FETÖ/PDY terrorist organisation who were suspected of committing the offence in question might flee the country. He asked the Directorate General of Security to contact all the regional authorities with a view to taking into police custody all the judges and public prosecutors whose names were listed in the appendix to the instructions – including some of the applicants –, and to ensure that they were brought before a public prosecutor to be placed in pre-trial detention under Article 309 of the Criminal Code.
  2. On 20 July 2016 the Government declared a state of emergency for a period of three months as from 21 July 2016; the state of emergency was subsequently extended for further periods of three months by the Council of Ministers.

 

  1. During the state of emergency, the Council of Ministers passed several legislative decrees under Article 121 of the Constitution (see Baş, cited above, § 52). One of them, Legislative Decree no. 667, published in the Official Gazette on 23 July 2016, provided in its Article 3 that the High Council of Judges and Prosecutors (Hakimler ve Savcılar Yüksek Kurulu ‑“the HSYK”) was authorised to dismiss any judges or prosecutors who were considered to belong or to be affiliated or linked to terrorist organisations or organisations, structures or groups found by the National Security Council to have engaged in activities harmful to national security.

 

  1. On 18 July 2018 the state of emergency was lifted.

 

 

Actions against judges/prosecutors by the Turkish state:

Laws under which the Turkish state took action:

The following laws were used to take action against the prosecutors / judges by the Turkish state.

Investigation

Section 76

  1. The initial investigation in respect of offences committed by the President, the Chief Public Prosecutor, the deputy presidents, the chamber presidents and the members of the Supreme Administrative Court in connection with or in the course of their official duties shall be conducted by a committee composed of a chamber president and two members selected by the President of the Supreme Administrative Court.

 

The procedure for the prosecution of personal offences

Section 82

  1. The proceedings regarding the personal offences committed by the President, the Chief Public Prosecutor, the deputy presidents, the chamber presidents and the members of the Supreme Administrative Court shall be conducted in accordance with the provisions concerning the personal offences committed by the President, the Chief Public Prosecutor and the members of the Court of Cassation.

 

Outcome of the Judicial action by the Turkish state against prosecutors/ judges:

The Turkish state has taken judicial action against prosecutors/judges concerning the arrest and pre-trial detention of the applicants.

 

In the case Turan vs The State of Turkey the court noted the following:

 

  1. Decides, unanimously, to join the applications;
  2. Declares, unanimously, the complaint under Article 5 § 1 of the Convention concerning the lawfulness of the applicants’ initial pre-trial detention admissible;
  3. Holds, unanimously, that there has been a violation of Article 5 § 1 of the Convention on account of the unlawfulness of the initial pre-trial detention of the applicants who were ordinary judges and prosecutors at the time of their detention;
  4. Holds, unanimously, that there has been a violation of Article 5 § 1 of the Convention on account of the unlawfulness of the initial pre-trial detention of the applicants who were members of the Court of Cassation or the Supreme Administrative Court at the time of their detention;
  5. Holds, by six votes to one, that there is no need to examine the admissibility and merits of the applicants’ remaining complaints under Article 5 of the Convention;
  6. Holds, unanimously,

(a) that the respondent State is to pay each of the applicants, within three months from the date on which the judgment becomes final in accordance with Article 44 § 2 of the Convention, EUR 5,000 (five thousand euros) in respect of non-pecuniary damage and costs and TURAN AND OTHERS v. TURKEY JUDGMENT 29 expenses, plus any tax that may be chargeable on these amounts, which are to be converted into the currency of the respondent State at the rate applicable at the date of settlement;

(b) that from the expiry of the above-mentioned three months until settlement simple interest shall be payable on the above amount at a rate equal to the marginal lending rate of the European Central Bank during the default period plus three percentage points;

  1. Dismisses, unanimously, the remainder of the applicants’ claim for just satisfaction. Done in English, and notified in writing on 23 November 2021, pursuant to Rule 77 §§ 2 and 3 of the Rules of Court.

 

The state of judges/prosecutors in Turkey – a summary:

 

The actions by the Turkish state shows that its actions to initiate actions against Judges/prosecutors was arbitrary. This is why the court decided to impose fines on such actions. While, military coup is definitely hostile action against the executive, the arrest of judges and prosecutors were broad and arbitrary in its scope. Judges and Prosecutors are representatives of the critical third pillar of a country that is the Judiciary. Judiciary often acts as a check against overreach by the executive and legislature. In this way it ensures that people’s fundamental rights do not get trampled due to the actions of legislature/ executive whether knowingly/unknowingly.

 

The state of judges/ prosecutors in Turkey can be seen as vulnerable. The judges are vulnerable to actions by the Turkish state which believes in detention, arrest of judges without verifiable reason. This may be of significant concern because it leads to chilling stifling of judicial independence. The fundamental fact is that after the 2016 coup the arrest of prosecutors/ judges were based on suspicions of being a part of a movement that was allegedly responsible for a coup overthrowing the executive. While, overthrowing of a democratically elected government cannot be justified, the arrest of all judges who a part of a particular list shows a lack of respect for established forms. The Turkish government decided to ask the Directorate General of Security to contact all the regional authorities with a view to taking into police custody all the judges and public prosecutors whose names were listed in the appendix to the instructions – including some of the applicants –, and to ensure that they were brought before a public prosecutor to be placed in pre-trial detention under Article 309 of the Criminal Code. This is a complete violation of a proper process of prosecution in which there should have been investigation, enquiry, evidence gathering. After this there should have been arrest and then placing the evidence in court. None of this happened.

 

The Turkish authorities have shown complete lack of respect either for judges as individuals who have fundamental freedoms nor have they considered the impact it will have on the ability of judiciary to restrain harmful government action. In summary this is what the case and its verdict as well as Turkish govt’s actions highlight after a coup. While, coup against the state is unjustifiable detention of judges without proof of involvement in coup is also unjustifiable.

 

Retrieved from:

Societies Need New Perspectives on Race and Ethnicity

Humans need to treat each other with mercy and ensure that peace is encouraged in societies to solve the problems of racism and ethnicity. If people come up with common values so that each member knows what to expect of each other or have some shared principles by which to resolve differences without resolving to violence, this world would be a better place, racism and ethnicity wouldn’t exist among human beings. Societies should have values that binds them together, encourage the spirit of friendship and brother hood among people to make this world free from racism and ethnicity.

Tolerance and dialogue can also help in solving the problems that arise due to racism and ethnicity. Societies need to have peaceful exchange of ideas for them to come up with positive solutions that can resolve differences without violence. Tolerance safeguards against persecutions and evils that are necessarily associated with ethnicity and racism. Hate and curse should be discouraged and peace and harmony among people in societies be encouraged.

Power hungry people should not be made leaders as they sometimes make decisions that negatively impact others in societies thereby encouraging racism and ethnicity. Rather people who are relatively grounded, reasonably self-aware and do not take things or themselves too seriously or don’t change in a bad way are the ones with the best chance of leading successfully. Power hungry people get carried away with their desires and do not consider other people’s views. They do not like to be criticized and are of the perception that they are always right. This cause disunion among people and encourages greediness. Greedy people destroy societies.
Recognizing human dignity in people plays a very big role in curbing racism and ethnicity. This makes people to respect and honor each other’s values. Respect for human rights can help people to understand each other in societies. Human rights bring people together because they are inherent to human beings of all nationalities, sex, ethnic groups, and races. These human rights are interrelated, interdependent and indivisible.

People should also be sensitized on racism and ethnicity and encourage victims to be reporting issues of racism to authorities or to speak up. If people in societies are aware of how to deal with racism, they stand a better chance in addressing the issues when encountered.

A bad expected behavior cannot be changed or fixed by hating or announcing it an enemy. Hate bears hate. Moving from on this path the damages of racism and ethnocentrism ca be more and more by having a distance and calling “the others”. Because the racist and ethnocentrist also call “the others”. Instead of having a distance, need to build bridges to avoid the disunity and prevent the problems which can be caused among the relations.

When people live in harmony, recognize the contributions that each person make to societies, appreciate each other’s contributions towards issues that affect societies and recognize that we are all on this planet together and that we stand to gain more when we work together rather than against each other. Racism and ethnicity can be avoided if love for humanity is practiced. Societies would be united regardless of race end ethnic groups and wars and conflicts would be avoided. We should all try to follow the golden rule that encourage us to do onto others as we would want them to do onto us as the saying goes “if you live in glass house, do not throw stones at others”.

by Prof Dr. Ibrahim Kurt

published at
Societies Need New Perspectives on Race and Ethnicity: Societies in Harmony (Religious Context)
June 2021 · International Journal Ihya Ulum al-Din 23(1):79-88
DOI: · 10.21580/ihya.23.1.7765
License· CC BY-SA 4.0
to have the full article please click the link

 

لوح يف موعزملا بلاقنلاا یكرت ا (15 ویلوی/زومت 2016م) يفحص رمتؤم

يفحص رمتؤم
لوح يف موعزملا بلاقنلاا یكرت ا (15 ویلوی/زومت 2016م)
يف ثدح 15 ویلوی/زومت 2016 بلاقنا ةلواحم ةیكرتلا ةیروھمجلاب م
يركسع كربفم تم التخطیط لھ وتنفیذه غد ًرا، دقو ضرعت ھببسب ت عیمج
تاعاطق عمتجملا ىلإ تاكاھتنا ةیقوقح ةفلتخم . فقد ُع لز ریثكلا و ن نم
،مھفئاظو وأ غل تی حیرصت تاداھشو مھرفس تازاوجو مھلمع تا
مھجرخت ، لاقتعلاا تایلمع بناجب يرسقلا سبحلاو ضرعتلاو عشبلأ
بیذعتلا عاونأ عمقلاو .نوجسلا يف . يتلا تاكاھتنلاا هذھل ةجیتنو
اھل نوضرعتی قو دقف ع راحتنلااو ةافولا تلااح نم دیدعلا مھنیب يف
نوجسلا . لاو يف ةرمتسم اھل نوضرعتی يتلا ةیمدلآا ریغ ةلماعملا لازت
|ا،
يدارفنلاا سبحلا ةسدكتملا ةیعامجلا نوجسلا يفو ریغ الملائمة صحی
ًا في ضا ط ىلإ ریثكلا رار
دقو ا تناك ایكرت يف ناسنلإا قوقح تاكاھتن سبب
نم نورفی امنیبو .مھدلاب ةرداغم هذھ يتلا تاطوغضلاو تادیدھتلا
نوضرعتی اھل دقف قل ي البعض مصر َع مھ عم مھدلاوأ مھترسأو رحب يف
.جیرم رھنو ةجیإ
” ةصنم انتفصب نحن Chalk Broken “يف ادنلوھ( ) دیرن تفلن نأ
يتلا ملاظملا ىلإ راظنلأا درأ ماظن اھبكترا و ناغ ایكرت يف وأ اھجراخ
ببسب عمط ھ ةطلسلا يف ،ةضراعملا تاكسإ يف ھتبغرو ، و لك ھتیؤر
لجأ نم ةعورشم لئاسولا .يأرلا ھنوفلاخی نم ىلع ءاضقلا
لت ببسب ملاعلا نع ناغودرأ ماظن ھب ماق ام ًا و ُعز لقد تجردت تركیا تمام
يف ةیومد ةیحرسم نم 15 ویلوی/زومت 2016م، ب ھتحاطإو ةیطارقمیدلا
و ھلمكأب ملاعلا اھرقی يتلا ناسنلإا قوقح ، و ،ةیرحلاو ،نوناقلا ةدایس
ةلادعلاو . وتزداد یو ًم موی دعب ا ثبت يتلا تلامحلا نیب روفنلاو ةقرفلا
فایطأ يكرتلا بعشلا ی يذلا فلتخم راكفأو قورعو نایدأو تاغل مض ة .
لجأ نم اھملاعإو اھرداصمو اھتاناكمإ ةفاك ةلودلا لغتستف حور مدھ
الوحدة والترابط والتناغم بین أفراد المجتمع يكرتلا ىلع موادتو ، َّ ة و الأخو
َغ ھیف ، فبدلا
َ ْت ةوق نم طرفم لكشب مبال
الاھتمام ً من فعل ذلك بكل ما أوتی
نوركفی ،بعشلاو ةلودلا ةحلصمب مھ ةیصخشلا مھحلاصم يف طقف ، دقل
ملظلا ناولأ لجأ نم ةیرارمتسا نامض مھمكح لجأ نمو ، َ استباحوا جمیع
علاو داركلأا ىلع ةماتلا ةرطیسلا ةمدخلا ةكرحو نییلاربیللاو نییول .. و نم
ىرخأ ةیحان لغتسا دقف او اكمإ عیمج ةصاخلا تاسسؤملاو ةلودلا تان أی ًضا
لجأ نم نیشدت ملاعلاو ایكرت يف ةیئادع ةلمح عمجأ .ةمدخلا ةكرح دض
مھفئاظو يف نیحجانلا نیفظوملا نم ریبك رداك لصفب ناغودرأ ماظن ماق
بجومب ةفلتخملا ” يفسعتلا ئراوطلا موسرم ” ةموكحلا ھتردصأ يذلا ، دقل
ددع غلب نیلوصفملا يف نع دیزی ام ةماعلا حلاصملا 126. فظوم فلأ
و اوفرتعی مل ىتح م نیملعتملا نم فلالآا تارشعل ةایحلا قحب ءابطلأا ن
،نیماحملاو ،ةاضقلاو ،مومعلا باونلاو ،نیسدنھملاو ،نیحجانلا
َّاب، ،نینانفلاو
والدبلوماسیین، ورجال العلم، ورجال الدین، والكت
نییفرحلاو ،نییسایسلاو ، نیملعملاو ،نییمیداكلأاو ،نییضایرلاو ،
،بلاطلاو و اومدق نمم ةفلتخملا عمتجملا تاعاطق عیمج تاماھسإ ةمیظع
يف ةلودلل تخ ّص .اھنأش نم اوعفرو ،مھتاص
قلاغإ يفسعتلا ئراوطلا موسرم بجومب مت دق رخآ بناج نم 15، ةعماج
| و ،ا 848
و1056 و ،ةیوناثو ةیدادعإو ةیئادتبا ةسردم 980 مركًزا تعلیمی
ًا مطابقة للمواصفات ةیموكحلا
|ا نم مغرلا ىلع أنھا جمیع
ًا طلابی
سكن
ً الرسمیة وف
ا للقانون المعمول بھ. نع يلختلا مت ھنأ ىلإ ةفاضلإاب ُتحت طبق
ةیمیلعتلا تاسسؤملا هذھ يف نیلماعلا ،ةلاطبلل ةضرع اونوكیل غلبی نیذلاو
رثكأ مھددع 35 نم رثكأو ملعم فلأ 30 فظوم فلأ ، ءلاؤھ لوحت دقل
نمم اودقف مھفئاظو ةقلغملا ةیمیلعتلا تاسسؤملا يف ىلإ شیج ریبك نم
نیلطاعلا عیمج تضفر نأ دعب تاسسؤم ةصاخلا تاسسؤملاو ةلودلا
مھنییعت ، امك ترداص عیمج ةلودلا كلذكو ةقلغملا ةیمیلعتلا تاسسؤملا
نیلماعلا تاكلتمم اھب ، بناجبو اذھ لك ھ مت نامرح ءلاؤھ ءایربلأا
ةیعامتجلاا قوقحلا عیمج نم مھتلائاعو ق مھنأكو د ُحكم علیھم بالإعدام
ُغلقت نقابة ریوطت ،ةیمیلعتلا نھملا
يعامتجلاا ، وعلى إثر ذلك أی ًضا أ
باقنو ة نیملعملا .
عضخ ت ا ةیبلاغل مظعلا ى نم يفظوم قیقحتلل ةقلغملا ةیمیلعتلا تاسسؤملا
” مھنأ ةمھتب ءاضعأ ب ةیباھرإ ةمظنم “، فقد ُو لا يف اوعض ،يدارفنلاا سبح
قبو او ،لاقتعلاا نھر ةلیوط تارتفل لكشب مھیلع مكحو ينوناق ریغ .. هذھ
لإا و مھتناھإ ىلإ فدھت تابوقع يھ ةیفسعتلا تاءارج ىلع ءاضقلا
ملا ءلاؤھ نأ ىلع ةولاع ،عمتجملا نیع يف مھرابتعا اوضرعت دق نیمولظ
عتلا ىلإ ،ةفلتخملا تاكاھتنلااو بیذ ومغرأو ا ءاقبلا ىلع ددعب 40-50
شخ ًصا في زنزانات تسع 12 شخ ًصا فقط.. لماعملا هذھ ة يھ ةیمدلآا ریغ
ّن .ناسنلإا قوقحل
رج می ة إنسانیة وانتھاك بِی
ًا لإحصائیات وزارة لا ھنإف ةیكرتلا ةیلخاد تردص دق ةیئاضق تاقیقحت
ووفق
نأشب 511 فلأ نطاوم ، نم رثكأ لاقتعاو 125 ءاضعأ مھنأ ةمھتب فلأ
.ةیباھرإ ةمظنم يف یلا دجاوتیو نم رثكأ مو 31 نوجسلا يف صخش فلأ ،
ةبارق كانھ امنیبو 11 ألف امرأة في السجون التركیة، فھناك أی ًضا 780
ًا يدایأ نیب نوربكی نجسلا يف مھتاھمأ مھتلوفط اوشیعی نأ نود .
رضیع
تناك رخآ بناج نم تارباخملا ةزھجأ تایلمعب علطضت و بقعتلا ءافخلإا
يرسقلا نم دیدعل المواطنین وتعّر بیذعتلا ناولأ ىسقلأ مھض يف لخاد
اھجراخو ایكرت ، و لازی لا سانلا ءلاؤھ ضعب نیلوھجم ، اذھ ةفاضلإابو
ىلإ ل ةیبطلا ةیاعرلا ریفوت مدع نیباصملا ءانجسل ضارمأب دیدش ،ة
توملل مھضیرعتو . رظح امك ةموكحلا ت ریثكلل ایكرت جراخ جلاعلل رفسلا
،ناطرسلا ىضرم نم مھتوم يف ةلودلا تببستو .
دقل رداغلا بلاقنلاا امارد ببسب يكرتلا بعشلا نیب قافتلااو قافولا لتخا
يف 15 ویلوی/زومت نم لو ناغودرأ ماظن ةجھ ىلإ اوعدت يتلا سرغ
ھتاكرحتو ،بعشلا سوفن يف روفنلا ةیعمقلا ةیئادعلاو ةیقیرفتلاو
.ةیكیكفتلاو . دح ىلع ةلودلا يفو ضعبلا مھضعب يف ةقثلا سانلا دقف دقل
.ءاوس عفد ام اذھ مھرفس تازاوج ةلودلا ترداص نیذلا نونطاوملا
ًا إلى
مھنطوو مھتویب كرت ىلإ دلابلا جراخ مھرفس ترظحو للھجرة ھرب
فنك يف كانھ شیعلا لمأب ةیبورولأا لودلا ةیطارقمیدلاو ةیرحلا ، دقو
ریثكلا رسخ مھنم .قیرطلا يف مھتایح
لإا قوقحل ةیبورولأا ةمكحملاو ،ةدحتملا مملأا نم دیرن اننإ ،ناسن ناملربو
لاأ ملاعلا بوعش عیمجو ،ةیملاعلإا تاسسؤملاو ،يبورولأا داحتلاا
ًا من تاكاھتناو ،ایكرت يف ملظلا ماظن ،ناغودرأ
نأو اوتمصی یتخذوا موقف
هادادبتساو یف ببست يتلا ملاظملاو اھ ، ةدایس قیقحت نأب ةمات ةعانق ىلع اننإ
ل نوناقلا ن .يناسنلإا دضاعتلاو فتاكتلاب لاإ نوكی
” ةصنم انتفصب اننإ Chalk Broken تنن ” ظ و ربصلا غرافب ر لماك
يذلا مویلا لملأا اقع نویقیقحلا نوبنذملا ھیف لانیس أ مھتمكاحمو ،مھب مام
لا ملاظملا عیمج ىلع ةلداع مكاحم ذنم تشیع يت 15 ویلوی/زومت 2016م،
الصوت المناھض ًا إلى جانب و ءایربلأا ،نیمولظملا وسنظل دوم ًا إننا دائم
عمقلاو ملظلل داھطضلااو .
.ماعلا يأرلل ریدقتلاو مارتحلاا صلاخ عم
Broken Chalk