Education at a Crossroads: Navigating Thailand’s Educational Challenges

Written by Niyang Bai

Image Source: free stock photos from by Robert Collins.


In the heart of Southeast Asia, Thailand is a land of rich history and boundless potential. Its picturesque surface hides the challenges facing its education system, a cornerstone of its development.

Education is the key to progress, dreams, and prosperity in Thailand. However, this journey is riddled with obstacles, from insufficient funding to educational inequality, casting shadows on a brighter future. These challenges aren’t abstract; they affect students, parents, and policymakers daily. We will explore Thai schools, educators, and students, highlighting their resilience and determination.

Thailand is at a crossroads in its education system, with choices that will impact future generations. We delve into Thailand’s education system’s complexities, hopes, and aspirations, recognizing that in adversity, a nation’s greatest asset is its pursuit of knowledge.

Insufficient Funding

In Thailand, where the promise of education should be a beacon for the future, insufficient funding looms as a dark cloud over the nation’s schools. A simple search through recent articles reveals a complex web of challenges from this issue.

According to a report by the World Bank, the education system in Thailand is beset by poor management, inequality, and high teacher shortages[1]. The World Bank has stated that investments in key financial, human, and digital learning resources were especially low in disadvantaged schools (ranked at the bottom 25 percent of the PISA Economic, Social, and Cultural Status (ESCS) Index), private schools that receive more than half of their funding from government, and rural schools[2].

World Bank highlights the small school challenge in Thailand and options for quality education. It reveals that compared to international peers, Thai secondary schools are severely hindered by inadequate learning materials and physical infrastructure, which limits their capacity to provide quality instruction. More importantly, the Thai secondary school system is dramatically lacking in qualified teachers: secondary schools in rural areas are much more understaffed and under-resourced than their urban counterparts[3].

A more in-depth report by the National Education Commission for the fiscal year 2022-2023 reveals the extent of the problem. It states that Thailand’s education budget falls significantly short of international standards. Thailand allocates only 15% of its annual budget to education, while UNESCO recommends a minimum of 20%[4]. This shortfall in funding directly affects the quality of education and students’ overall well-being.

To gain a deeper insight into the challenges of rural education in Thailand, the story of Ms. Nongnuch, a passionate teacher in a bamboo school in Buriram province. Like many others, her school strives to provide quality education despite limited resources.

Ms. Nongnuch explained that the bamboo school has an innovative learning method focusing on sustainability and environmental conservation. The students do not have to pay tuition but must plant 800 trees and participate in 800 hours of community service per year. They also learn leadership, empathy and compassion through hands-on activities.

She also highlighted the need for more support from the government and society. “Our school is more than just a school that we all used to know. A school is a lifelong learning centre and a hub for social and economic advancement in the communities,” Ms. Nongnuch quoted the school founder, Mechai Viravaidya[5]. However, she said the school still faces difficulties securing funds, materials and facilities.

Moreover, the lack of recognition and appreciation is a constant struggle. “Others often look down upon our students because they come from poor families or remote areas,” Ms. Nongnuch revealed. This stigma not only affects their self-esteem but also their motivation to pursue higher education.

Perhaps most inspiring is the impact on students’ aspirations. Ms. Nongnuch shared stories of talented students who had overcome their hardships and achieved their goals with the help of the bamboo school. “It fills me with joy to see potential realized,” she said. “We are nurturing future leaders who will make a difference in their communities and beyond.”

As Ms. Nongnuch eloquently put it, insufficient funding is “a barrier that blocks the opportunities for our children.”  It becomes increasingly clear that supporting rural schools like hers is not just a matter of charity; it’s about empowering the untapped potential of a nation’s youth.

Quality of Education

According to a report by the Asian Development Bank, Thailand’s basic education system faces several challenges, including the need to expand the supply of human capital to avoid the middle-income trap and the ageing society. The report highlights that despite the significant amount of resources spent on education, students’ learning outcomes are low and have not improved significantly in either national or international assessments. The performance of junior secondary school students in national examinations has declined, especially in mathematics and science. While the performance of senior secondary school students has improved slightly over the same period, the mean results for core subjects (mathematics, science, and English) were less than 50. This worrying figure is worsened by inequality in education quality across regions since the performance of secondary school students is lower in poorer, remote regions. The report argues that such poor learning outcomes are presumably due to two main reasons: the role of small schools and inefficient resource allocation for education in public spending[6].

As per the World Bank, various factors are influencing the quality of education in Thailand[7]. The report highlights the following key findings:

  • A lack of teacher training and professional development opportunities directly impacts the quality of instruction in classrooms.
  • Disparities in educational quality persist between urban and rural areas, where students in rural regions face limited access to qualified teachers and educational resources.
  • The curriculum was found to be outdated, with a need for reforms that align with 21st-century skills.
  • Student engagement and critical thinking skills remain underdeveloped due to traditional teaching methods.

The report recommends comprehensive teacher training programs, curriculum updates, and implementing student-centred teaching strategies to address these challenges.

The following views expressed by both a student and a parent tell us more about the quality of education in Thailand.

Nicha, a 16-year-old high school student, expressed dissatisfaction with the rigid curriculum. “I feel like I’m just following instructions from teachers,” she said. “I want to explore, not just obey.” Nicha also mentioned that the lack of creative learning opportunities made studying less interesting.

On the other hand, Mr. Somchai, a parent, shared his worries about the quality of education. “I wonder if my child is getting the skills they need for the future,” he said. “The education system seems old-fashioned, and it doesn’t prepare them for the changes of today’s society.”[8]

These voices resonate with a growing sentiment in Thailand: a need for a shift in the education paradigm. The emphasis on holistic development, critical thinking, and practical skills has become increasingly urgent. Thailand’s educational landscape stands at a crossroads, with the quality of education being a critical factor in determining the nation’s success in the global arena.

Image Source: Free stock photos from by Mario Heller

Educational Inequality

Educational inequality in Thailand is a pressing issue highlighted in recent news articles. According to a report by the World Bank, disparities in allocation and inefficiencies of investments across schools in Thailand have led to a decline in student performance in reading and a stagnation of scores in math and science[9]. The report further finds that investments in key financial, human, and digital learning resources were especially low in disadvantaged schools, private schools that receive more than half of their funding from the government, and rural schools.

Inequality between urban and rural areas is also a significant concern. Rural areas often lack basic infrastructure, qualified teachers, and educational resources, creating a significant gap in educational quality[10]. Ethnic minority communities face additional challenges, such as language barriers, discrimination, and limited access to quality education[11].

The Thai government must address these issues and create inclusive learning environments in schools to help improve Thailand’s education performance. A report by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) that assesses Thailand’s education system and skills imbalances[12]. The report highlights several issues that contribute to educational inequality in Thailand:

  • Education quality, not quantity, is the main contributing factor to long-term economic growth.
  • Disadvantaged schools have low investments in key financial, human, and digital learning resources.
  • There is a skills mismatch between the demand in the Thai labour market and the supply of skilled workers.
  • There are disparities in resources allocated for teachers and other educational resources between schools with higher and lower socioeconomic status students.

The report recommends several policy interventions to address these issues, including improving teacher quality, increasing investment in disadvantaged schools, and enhancing the relevance of education to labour market needs. The report also emphasizes the importance of developing relevant skills from pre-primary to higher education levels.

However, not all students have equal access to quality education and opportunities to develop their skills. Nong, a stateless student from a hill tribe in northern Thailand, shared her challenges and aspirations for education[13].

She explained that she had to overcome many obstacles, such as poverty, discrimination, and language barriers. “I had to work hard to support my family and pay school fees,” she said. “I also faced stigma and prejudice because of my ethnicity and status. I had to learn Thai as a second language, which was difficult.”

Nong also expressed her gratitude for the support she received from teachers and mentors. “They encouraged me to pursue my dreams and helped me with scholarships and citizenship applications,” she said. “They also taught me about my rights and responsibilities as a citizen.”

Regarding her future plans, Nong said she wanted to become a teacher and help other disadvantaged children. “I want to give back to my community and society,” she said. “I believe education is the key to empowerment and opportunity.”

Nong’s story illustrates the resilience and potential of many ethnic minority and stateless students in Thailand. While they face many hardships, they also have educational hopes and ambitions. There is a need for more inclusive and supportive policies and practices that enable them to access quality education and realize their full potential.

Teacher Shortage

Thailand is facing a serious challenge in providing quality education to its students, especially in rural areas lacking qualified teachers. A Thai PBS World report highlights the teacher shortage in Thailand, particularly in rural areas. The report states that the shortage is most severe in the northeastern region of Thailand, where schools struggle to attract and retain qualified teachers[14]. This has resulted in uneven access to quality education, with students in rural areas being disadvantaged.

In addition, a report from The Bangkok Post indicates a severe shortage of science and mathematics teachers nationwide. The report states that students in these subjects face a challenging situation due to the dearth of specialized educators[15].

According to a World Bank study, around 64% of Thai primary schools are critically short of teachers, defined as having less than one teacher per classroom on average. The study estimates that as many as 110,725 out of 353,198 classrooms in Thai primary and secondary schools are critically short of teachers[16]. The study also reveals that eliminating teacher shortages in terms of quality and quantity would significantly improve student learning, and the impact would be most significant for lower-performing schools. Therefore, improving the quality of teachers and addressing the severe teacher shortages – especially for the vast number of small rural schools – should be at the centre of Thailand’s reform initiatives if the country is serious about tackling the widespread low education quality and high disparity in educational performance between socioeconomic groups.

To gain insight into the challenges of teaching in under-resourced schools, the case of Chaisit Chaiboonsomjit, a learner at Xavier Learning Community (XLC) in Chiang Rai, who served as a volunteer teacher at Zi Brae School in Chiang Mai[17]. His experience was eye-opening.

Chaisit shared his enthusiasm for teaching but also revealed the harsh conditions he faced. “The school is located on top of a mountain, and it takes eight hours to get there by car or motorcycle,” he said. “When it rains, the roads become impossible to pass, and teachers are often stranded.”

He explained how the lack of teachers affects students. “Most of our students are from the Karen hill tribe and study seven subjects provided by the Thai Education Ministry. But we only have 15 teachers for more than 200 students. They need more guidance and support to learn effectively.”

Chaisit also expressed frustration about teacher retention. “Many teachers leave after a short time because they can’t cope with the isolation and hardship,” he said. “This creates instability and inconsistency in the school system.”

In his heartfelt appeal, Chaisit emphasized the value of equal opportunity for education. “Every child, no matter where they are born, deserves a good teacher and a chance to pursue their dreams. We need more incentives to attract teachers to rural areas and more resources for teacher training.”

Chaisit’s story is a powerful illustration of the real-world impact of the teacher shortage crisis. It’s a challenge that affects educators and limits the educational potential of countless Thai students, especially those in remote areas.


Thailand’s education system, often celebrated for its potential, is ensnared in a web of challenges that demand urgent attention. This report has delved into five critical issues that cast shadows over the nation’s educational landscape:

  1. Insufficient Funding: A chronic shortage of financial resources hampers the quality of education, hindering the nurturing of young minds.
  2. Quality of Education: Rote memorization and standardized testing take precedence over critical thinking and creativity, leaving students ill-prepared for the complexities of the modern world.
  3. Educational Inequality: Disparities in access to education and educational outcomes persist, affecting marginalized communities and perpetuating social divisions.
  4. Teacher Shortage: A severe lack of qualified educators, particularly in rural areas and critical subjects, disrupts the learning process and hinders student development.

These challenges collectively pose a profound threat to Thailand’s education system and, by extension, its future. A nation’s strength lies in equipping its youth with the knowledge and skills to navigate an ever-evolving global landscape. However, the current state of Thailand’s education system impedes this aspiration.

Insufficient funding and the resultant resource shortages compromise the quality of education, leaving students ill-prepared for a future that demands adaptability, creativity, and critical thinking. Educational inequality perpetuates social divisions, limiting the nation’s capacity to harness the full potential of its diverse populace.

In conclusion, the challenges outlined in this report are not isolated issues; they are interconnected strands in a complex web. The future of Thailand depends on addressing these challenges with determination and foresight. A well-funded, inclusive, and quality education system is not just an investment in the present but a beacon guiding the nation toward a brighter, more equitable, and prosperous tomorrow. To ensure Thailand’s place on the global stage, these challenges must be met head-on, placing education at the forefront of the nation’s priorities.



















Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Ut elit tellus, luctus nec ullamcorper mattis, pulvinar dapibus leo.

Educational Challenges in Lesotho

Written by Priscilla Thindwa

An Overview of Education

The significance of education in driving development and as a tool in reducing  poverty is undeniable. Education should be regarded as a human right, and every individual should have access to and be fully included. According to the World Bank, on an individual level, education has the impact of promoting employment, increasing earnings, and reducing poverty (World Bank, 2023). On the societal level, education has the potential to drive long-term economic growth, strengthen institutions and foster social cohesion (World Bank, 2023). For this reason, Sustainable Development Goal 4 envisages a world with inclusive and equitable quality education and promotes lifelong learning opportunities for everyone. However, the challenge in most African countries is not the accessibility but the quality of education and exclusion. According to reports by the United Nations (UN), sub-Saharan Africa has the highest rates of education exclusion globally, with approximately 60% of youth between the ages of 15 and 17 not in school (Kaledzi, 2022). Several factors contribute to such challenges.

Lesotho College of Education. Photo by OER Africa on Flickr.

The Landscape of Education in Lesotho

Lesotho, a country in sub-Saharan Africa, is not an exception to the persistent challenges of education faced by other countries in the region. Even though the country has had some challenges, its literacy rate is considered one of the highest in Africa. With an adult literacy rate of 81% in 2021, the World Bank datasets note a decline of 5.3% from 2000. Such a decline is worrisome because education is considered a fundamental human right for all individuals in the world. The primary school in Lesotho is free, and most primary schools and secondary schools are owned by churches (Bitso, 2006: 37). The Ministry of Education and Training is considered the mouthpiece of education whose main responsibilities include formulating and monitoring the implementation of educational policies, passing legislation and regulations governing schools (Bitso, 2006: 37).


Overcrowding in Classrooms

One of the main challenges facing education in Lesotho is classroom overcrowding. This is mostly in Primary schools. In 2009 when the government of Lesotho implemented a free education policy, this put a strain on the existing “physical infrastructure, educational material and human resources” (Mukurunge, T., Tlali, N. and Bhila, T., 2019:29). Even though the policy’s aim was for everyone to have free access to education, quality of education was compromised. As pointed out by World Data on Education, Lesotho’s poor quality of primary education is a matter of concern (UNESCO, 2006:2). Citing overcrowding as the main cause of such low quality in education, which is exacerbated by shortages of teachers, classrooms as well as high repetition levels (UNESCO, 2006:2). Supporting the literature study by Seotsanyana and Matheolane, Francina Moloi, Nomusic Morobe, and Urwick, James, assert that introduction of free primary school education led to an increase of students per teacher ratio. This resulted in teachers resorting to ineffective teaching methods (Moloi, F., Morobe, N. and Urwick, 2007). For instance, the latest World Bank Data on the pupil-teacher ratio in Primary schools was 1:23 in 2018. Consequently, affecting the levels of pupil concentration and increasing drop-outs.

Shortage of Qualified Teachers

In addition to overcrowded classrooms, the shortage of qualified teachers is another challenge that limits the education system in Lesotho. This shortage is compounded by the lack of opportunities for teachers to undergo proper professional training to revamp their skills. The shortage of qualified teachers and overcrowding in classrooms continue to contribute to low-quality education and efficiency, especially at the primary level. Moreover, as indicated by the World Data on Education on Lesotho, the low quality of teachers is owed to the “absence of regular in-service training opportunities for teachers” (UNESCO, 2006:2). This is exacerbated by inexperienced headteachers, inadequate inspection and teachers who are not certified.

Qoaling is a village/suburb of Maseru. It has a built in infrastructure for most part but hand pumps are still evident in some sections. Maimoeketsi Community Primary School. The Standard 7 class during lessons. Photo by John Hogg. World Bank on Flickr.
Shortage of Furniture and Learning Materials

Shortage of furniture and inadequate learning material are other challenges that hinder most Basotho from enjoying their right to quality education thoroughly. Quality infrastructure and learning materials are imperative for education to be effective and efficient. However, this is not the case for most schools in Lesotho. Even though education is free in primary schools, insufficient learning materials such as textbooks, teachers’ guide materials, and desks hinder the provision of a good education. To make matters worse, some schools do not have enough classroom blocks, so they must learn outside under trees. For those with school blocks, they are poorly maintained, and pupils shiver in cold weather. For some, such unfavourable environments continue to deter pupils in Lesotho schools from accessing quality education.

Socio-economic Factors Leading to Poor Performance

Another challenge that most Basotho face concerning education is related to the socio-economic factors, which place a significant role in the performance of the pupils in school. According to the World Bank data on the collection of development indicators, 70.06% of Lesotho’s population is based in rural areas (Trading Economics, 2022). The 2021 UNICEF Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS) findings on Lesotho indicated that approximately 80% of children complete primary education (UNICEF Lesotho 2021:15). The report observed a steep decline in the rate for lower and upper secondary education (UNICEF Lesotho, 2021:15). The report continues to note that children from the “poorest quintile and those in rural areas” had lower rates of completion and performing below the national average (UNICEF Lesotho, 2021:15). On the other hand, those from urban and wealthiest families, was noted to complete at “a level higher than the national average” (UNICEF Lesotho, 2021:15). Some contend that the disparities in the level performance are owed to lack of motivation for children from poor households whose parents are usually less educated (Help Lesotho, 2018). Most children from such households are not convinced that education’s impact is changing one’s economic status. Also, some children from poor households go to school hungry, making it difficult for them to concentrate and, as such, negatively affecting their performance. Thus, even though primary school is free, it remains inaccessible to certain groups of society in Lesotho.

Some Recommendations and Conclusion

Since education is considered a fundamental human right, one should expect it to benefit all groups of society regardless of their socio-economic status. However, this is not entirely the case in some schools in Lesotho. As discussed above, several challenges within the education system continue to hinder Basotho’s ability to enjoy fundamental human rights entirely. Firstly, classroom overcrowding can be tackled by constructing more schools and employing more teachers. Doing so will reduce the pressure on the limited resources. The employed teachers should be professionally trained and allow them opportunities to upgrade their knowledge to adapt to the changing world.

Moreover, the government and non-governmental organisations should ensure the provision of required learning and teaching materials to both students and teachers, respectively. Lastly, regarding tackling the challenge associated with socio-economic factors, children from poor and rural areas should be given more incentives to stay in school, and scholarships should be awarded to the best performers to continue their education to secondary school and tertiary education. Doing so will indeed ensure that education is accessible to all groups of society regardless of their socio-economic background.


Educational Challenges in Moldova

Written by Aurelia Bejenari

A small country located between Romania and Ukraine, one of the poorest countries in Europe that in its three decades of independence has been troubled by corruption, oligarchy, and polarization, the Republic of Moldova has been generally ignored, or at least overlooked on an international scale. YouTube videos by travel bloggers attempting to sensationalize the destination bear titles such as “Nobody Visits This Country … Find Out Why”, “Travelling to the “Worst” Country in Europe”, and “Travelling to the Country Everyone is Trying to Leave”. This has been the case until the war in Ukraine has effectively put Moldova on the map, garnering international audiences’ attention. 

The conflict across the border has forced Moldova to think about its own security and potential threats to the country. Many have speculated that Moldova could be the next one to fall under Russian attack, in a sort of twisted, imperialistic domino reaction. And while this prediction has not been proven accurate thus far, Moldova has undoubtedly been shaken up by the war, with its economy being strongly affected and internal conflicts brewing. This destabilized situation challenged all aspects of society, including education, which was already in a troubled state and left a lot to be desired.

Photo by Jeswin Thomas on Unsplash

Historical Background

The history of education, and especially higher education, in the Republic of Moldova is relatively young. In 1918, Bessarabia (the region corresponding, for the most part, with Moldova’s present-day territory) became part of Greater Romania. And while all the newly integrated regions showcased widely different levels of general schooling and literacy rates, Bessarabia displayed the lowest levels, despite the efforts to create and expand an elementary public school system at the end of the 19th century during the tsarist administration.

Romanian political elites directed their efforts towards national integration and cultural unification, including the decolonization and “Romanianization” of schools. This had a negative effect on the schooling of ethnic minorities, who accounted for more than

one-quarter of the general population, as Romanian authorities were concerned with the ethnic heterogeneity of Romanian society and often suspected ethnic minorities of subversion and disloyalty.

After 28 June 1940, Bessarabia became part of the Soviet Union. It was during the Soviet period that the bulk of Moldova’s development in education occurred. The contents of the courses, study programs, teaching methods, and recruitment policies were directly replicated from the already existing Soviet republics. The lack of academic traditions prior to the Soviet period facilitated this process. Professors and scientists immigrated from other Soviet republics, particularly Russia and Ukraine, which, on the one hand, raised the educational levels while, on the other hand, it has promoted the use of the Russian language, which

became the predominant language of education. 

The Republic of Moldova declared its independence on 27 August 1991, marking the beginning of radical political, economic, and social changes which required the educational system to adapt. This was met by a series of challenges and barriers that continue to exist, despite Moldova’s efforts and the educational reforms it has implemented since its independence.

Educational Challenges

In Moldova, more than half of students are only partially competent in reading, mathematics, or science. Moldovan students are lagging behind their peers in neighbouring countries. The results of the PISA 2018 survey show the following:

  • 57% of Moldovan students attained at least Level 2 proficiency in reading (OECD average: 77%)
  • 1% of students in Moldova were top performers in reading (OECD average: 9%)
  • 50% of students in Moldova attained Level 2 or higher in mathematics (OECD average: 76%)
  • 2% of students scored at Level 5 or higher in mathematics (OECD average: 11%)
  • 57% of students in Moldova attained Level 2 or higher in science (OECD average: 78%)
  • 1% of students were top performers in science (OECD average: 7%).

While school attendance rates in both primary and secondary education are high, children from rural spaces are more likely than others to be out of the classroom. This generally happens so children can carry out domestic work and assume responsibilities within

the household. The attendance rates of Roma children are much lower at all educational levels, as some of these children are never enrolled, are enrolled much later than they should have been, or drop out. Furthermore, only 20 per cent of Roma children attend a preschool compared to 80 per cent of non-Roma children.

Socio-economically advantaged students outperformed disadvantaged students in reading

by 102 score points in PISA 2018, which is a larger gap than the average difference between the two groups (89 score points) across OECD countries. Many students, especially disadvantaged ones, hold lower ambitions than would be expected given their academic achievement, with one in three disadvantaged students and one in ten advantaged students expecting to not complete tertiary education. 

Social norms and stereotypical gender roles heavily influence education and further professional attainments. For instance, dropout rates are higher among boys than girls, possibly due to the fact that men and boys see their gender role as breadwinners and economic providers. While, in general, the gender gap in education is relatively small, educational attainment among Roma women remains low. Last but not least, influenced by gender roles and societal pressure, girls tend to choose specializations related to liberal arts subjects (philology, political science, social sciences, social assistance, etc.), which are usually less well-paid.

Another issue is the situation of students with disabilities, who continue to face exclusion. Most educational institutions in Moldova are not adapted to meet inclusive education standards. There is a lack of accessible school buildings and facilities, a lack of training on

inclusive education for teachers and staff, as well as social barriers in the form of negative stereotypes and prejudices against people with disabilities. 

Additionally, many schools in Moldova lack basic structures, such as sanitary blocks. For instance, especially in villages, toilets are usually located outside the building and lack the necessary hygienic, safe, and/or gender-sensitive conditions.

The Moldovan educational system also suffers from a severe staff shortage. 43% of students enrolled in a disadvantaged school and 28% of students enrolled in an advantaged school attend a school whose principal reported that the capacity of the school to provide instruction is hindered, at least to some extent, by a lack of teaching staff. Only up to a quarter of pedagogy graduates chose to pursue a career in education. Low salaries and not wanting to move to a rural area, where shortages are most acute, are some of the main reasons for this.

Children attend class in a school in Beslan. Photo by the United Nations Development Programme in Europe.


The COVID-19 pandemic has further highlighted the discrepancies and inequalities between advantaged and disadvantaged student groups. With internet penetration in Moldova standing around 79.9% in 2019 (considerably lower than the EU penetration rate of 90% in 2019), approximately 16,000 students (4.8% of total) and 3000 teachers (10.6% of total) without access to ICT technology (laptop, tablet or access to internet) were left without any ability to deliver or receive instruction. The most affected categories were those in rural areas, families

with lower levels of education, and households with a low-income level. A lack of adequate

equipment, like a computer or connection to the internet, and high illiteracy rates among parents created additional obstacles to benefiting from distance learning for Roma children. Children with disabilities also faced additional challenges, as it proved more difficult to provide the support they need for learning remotely.

Education and the War Across the Border 

Since the start of the Russian invasion of Ukraine, Moldova and Poland have received the highest number of refugees compared to its population size. The sudden arrival of Ukrainian refugees has placed tremendous pressure on the Moldovan educational system to accommodate the hundreds of thousands of children seeking an education. In response to the influx of refugees, the Ministry of Education and Research has implemented regulations allowing the inclusion and integration of refugees into the national education system. However, this open refugee policy has further strained an already fragile educational system. Enormous educational needs are overstretching and straining the educational capacity of the country, given the shortage of teachers, the language barriers, the demand for mental health help and resources, etc.


Moldova, a small and often overlooked European country, has been pushed into the spotlight by the conflict across its border. The country faces significant educational challenges. More than half of its students struggle with basic skills like reading, math, and science, falling behind neighbouring countries. Inequality is a concern, children from rural communities and ethnic minorities missing out on education, and disadvantaged students facing lower expectations. In 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic aggravated the situation, exposing the digital divide. At present, the conflict in Ukraine has brought an influx of refugees, putting more strain on Moldova’s already fragile education system.

Moldova finds itself at a crossroads regarding its future and the future of its education system, as the two are inherently intertwined.  Without a well-educated and skilled workforce, Moldova’s future as a nation looks grim. Unless the disparities between urban and rural areas, as well as the marginalization of certain minority groups, are addressed, the country risks perpetuating a cycle of poverty and exclusion that could hinder social cohesion and stability.

The Republic of Moldova is currently facing daunting challenges, to be sure. Still, with determination and cooperation, it is at least within its power as a state to build a resilient education system that would unlock the potential of its youth so they may build a brighter future.

  1. Bald and bankrupt (2019). Nobody Visits This Country…Find Out Why. YouTube.
  2. Bischof, L. and Tofan, A. (2018). “Moldova: Institutions Under Stress—The Past, the Present and the Future of Moldova’s Higher Education System”. In: Huisman, J., Smolentseva, A. and Froumin, I. (eds) 25 Years of Transformations of Higher Education Systems in Post-Soviet Countries. Reform and Continuity, 311-337. London: Palgrave Macmillan. 
  3. Education Cannot Wait – Moldova. ECW in Moldova. Available at: Consulted on July 24 2023.
  4. Matt and Julia (2022). Traveling to the Country Everyone is Trying to Leave. YouTube.
  5. Negură, P. (2018). “Ce lecții tragem din școlarizarea minorităților din Basarabia interbelică ?”. In: Cioroianu, A. (ed.) Un Centenar și mai multe teme pentru acasă, 105-116. Iași: POLIROM.
  6. Negură, P. and Cușco, A. (2021). “Public Education in Romania and Moldova, 19-20th Centuries: Modernization, Political Mobilization, and Nation-Building. An Introduction.”, Plural. History, Culture, Society, 9(1): 5-10.
  7. OECD – Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) Results from Pisa 2018. Country Note. Moldova. Available at: Consulted on July 24 2023.
  8. UN (2020). “Education and COVID-19 in the Republic of Moldova: Grasping the opportunity the learning crisis presents to build a more resilient education system”. 
  9. UNFPA (2022). “Moldova lags behind in achieving gender equality in all spheres of life according to the UN Moldova Country Gender Assessment” Available at: Consulted on July 24 2023. 
  10. UNICEF – Moldova. Education. Available at: Consulted on July 24 2023.
  11. Yes Theory (2022). Traveling to the “Worst” Country in Europe. YouTube.

Educational Challenges in Burundi

Written by Joseph Kamanga


Burundi, a small landlocked country in East Africa with a population of over 11 million people, has been plagued by political instability and violence throughout its history. These challenges have severely impacted the country’s education system, hindering progress and development. While some improvements have been made in recent years to enhance access to education, Burundi continues to face several critical challenges, including substandard school infrastructure, limited access to education, low quality of education, and high dropout rates. Addressing these issues requires a collaborative effort involving the government, donors, and civil society to implement sustainable solutions.

Students are eagerly waiting for the completion of their new school in Mabayi, Burundi. Photo by United Nations Development Programme.

Substandard School Infrastructure

One of the primary obstacles affecting education in Burundi is the substandard condition of school infrastructure. Many schools lack the necessary facilities and resources, impeding effective teaching and learning. The critical problems associated with school infrastructure in Burundi include:

Lack of classrooms:

 A significant number of schools in Burundi suffer from a shortage of classrooms, resulting in overcrowding. Students often have to sit on the floor or study outside, hampering their ability to learn and concentrate.

Insufficient number of teachers:

In 2017, Burundi had only 40,000 teachers for a population of over 11 million, resulting in an alarming student-to-teacher ratio. The lack of teachers compromises the quality of education as individual attention to students becomes challenging.

Shortage of textbooks and learning materials:

Access to textbooks and learning materials is limited, with only 50% of students having access to these resources in 2017. This scarcity hampers students’ ability to actively participate in class and complete their assignments effectively.

Inadequate water and sanitation facilities:

Approximately 50% of schools lack proper water and sanitation facilities, depriving students of clean water and hygienic toilets. This lack of basic amenities contributes to the spread of diseases, making it difficult for students to attend school regularly.

Insufficient electricity:

Only 30% of schools in Burundi have access to electricity, restricting the use of electronic devices and hindering the integration of technology in teaching and learning practices.

Deteriorating school buildings:

Approximately 30% of schools in Burundi require urgent repairs, rendering them unsafe and unsuitable for students. Dilapidated infrastructure adds to the challenges faced by both students and teachers.

Limited Access to Education

Access to education in rural areas of Burundi is significantly limited due to various factors:


Poverty is a significant barrier preventing families from sending their children to school, even when educational institutions are available. The inability to afford school fees and related expenses hampers children’s access to education.


The geographical remoteness of rural areas in Burundi makes it challenging for children to access schools, resulting in limited educational opportunities.

Gender discrimination:

Girls, particularly in rural areas, face gender-based barriers to education. Cultural beliefs often dictate that girls should prioritize household responsibilities, impeding their access to formal education. Additionally, the lack of adequate sanitation facilities specifically designed for girls discourages their attendance.

The combined effect of poverty, distance, and gender discrimination has led to an estimated 600,000 girls in Burundi not attending school during the 2017-2018 academic year.

Low Quality of Education

The issue of low quality of education in Burundi encompasses various factors that contribute to a substandard learning experience for students. These factors can be attributed to the lack of resources, inadequate teacher training, outdated curriculum, and insufficient focus on student-centred learning approaches as follows:

Insufficient focus on student-centred learning: A student-centred approach to education emphasizes active participation, collaboration, and critical thinking. However, the traditional teaching methods employed in Burundi often prioritize rote memorization and passive learning. Shifting towards student-centred approaches, such as project-based learning, inquiry-based learning, and interactive teaching methods, can foster a deeper understanding of concepts and improve students’ ability to apply knowledge in practical situations.

The quality of education in Burundi is generally low, attributed to several factors:

Lack of qualified teachers:

A considerable number of teachers in Burundi need to be qualified or adequately trained. Moreover, the low salaries offered to qualified teachers often discourage highly skilled individuals from pursuing a career in education. As a result, the quality of instruction suffers. The quality of education is closely linked to the competence and skills of teachers. In Burundi, there is a need to invest in comprehensive teacher training programs that focus on pedagogical techniques, subject knowledge, and classroom management. Without proper training, teachers may rely on outdated teaching methods or struggle to effectively engage students in the learning process. Ongoing professional development opportunities can help teachers stay updated with best practices and enhance their instructional strategies.

Poor quality textbooks:

Many textbooks in Burundi are outdated or inaccurate, failing to provide up-to-date and accurate information to students. This hinders their ability to acquire knowledge effectively.

Outdated Curriculum:

The curriculum used in Burundi’s education system may suffer from outdated content, limited relevance to real-world contexts, and a lack of alignment with modern educational standards. Updating the curriculum to reflect current knowledge and skills required in the job market is crucial. A contemporary curriculum should promote critical thinking, problem-solving, creativity, and digital literacy, equipping students with the competencies necessary for future success.

Insufficient resources:

Many schools in Burundi need more essential resources, such as textbooks, learning materials, and technological equipment. Without access to up-to-date and relevant resources, students may struggle to grasp concepts and engage in meaningful learning. Insufficient resources also limit teachers’ ability to deliver comprehensive lessons and provide students with hands-on experiences that enhance their understanding of subjects.

High dropout rates:

Burundi experiences alarmingly high dropout rates among girls and children from disadvantaged backgrounds. Factors contributing to these high dropout rates include:

a. Poverty: Economic constraints force many families to prioritize immediate needs over education, making it difficult for children to continue their studies.

b. Early marriage: The prevalence of early marriage in Burundi prevents girls from pursuing education beyond a certain age. Early marriage often leads to the discontinuation of their schooling.

c. The need to work: Many children in Burundi are compelled to work to support their families, leaving them with no time or opportunity to attend school.

Addressing these complex challenges requires a multifaceted approach involving various stakeholders.

The Charlemagne School in Burundi. Photo by Bernd Weisbrod

Challenges faced by Children with disability

Children with disabilities face significant challenges in accessing quality education in Burundi. The educational system in the country often lacks the necessary infrastructure, resources, and inclusive policies to accommodate their diverse needs. Here are some key challenges faced by children with disabilities in Burundi’s education system:

Inadequate infrastructure and facilities:

Many schools in Burundi lack the necessary infrastructure and facilities to support children with disabilities. This includes wheelchair-accessible ramps, adapted classrooms, and accessible toilets. The physical barriers in schools make it difficult for children with mobility impairments to navigate the campus and fully participate in educational activities.

Limited availability of specialized support:

Specialized support services, such as trained teachers, therapists, and assistive devices, are scarce for children with disabilities in Burundi. These children often require individualized attention and tailored instructional approaches to address their specific learning needs. The need for more trained professionals and appropriate assistive technology hampers their educational progress.

Discrimination and stigma:

Children with disabilities in Burundi often face discrimination and stigma within their communities and schools. This can create psychological barriers affecting their self-esteem, confidence, and willingness to engage in learning. Negative attitudes and misconceptions about disability can lead to exclusion and social isolation.

Limited awareness and understanding:

There is a lack of awareness and understanding among educators, parents, and the wider community about disabilities and inclusive education. This can result in a failure to recognize and accommodate the diverse learning needs of children with disabilities. Promoting awareness campaigns and training teachers and stakeholders to foster an inclusive and supportive learning environment is crucial.

Inaccessible curriculum and teaching methods:

Burundi’s curriculum and teaching methods often do not consider the diverse learning styles and needs of children with disabilities. The instructional materials and assessments may not be adapted to cater to their specific requirements, hindering their full participation in the educational process. Adapting the curriculum and employing inclusive teaching strategies can help ensure that children with disabilities receive an equitable education.

Interventions to Improve Burundi’s Education System

To enhance the education system in Burundi, the following vital interventions are necessary:

Teacher Training and Professional Development:

To improve the quality of education in Burundi, a strong emphasis should be placed on teacher training and professional development programs. The government, in collaboration with educational institutions and international partners, should establish comprehensive training programs to enhance teachers’ skills and pedagogical techniques. Ongoing professional development opportunities should be provided to ensure that teachers are equipped with the latest teaching methodologies and subject knowledge. By investing in the professional growth of teachers, the overall quality of education in Burundi can be significantly improved.

Promoting Inclusive Education:

Another critical aspect of enhancing the education system in Burundi is promoting inclusive education. Efforts should be made to ensure that children with disabilities, those from marginalized communities, and those with special learning needs have equal access to education. This requires developing inclusive policies, providing necessary support services and resources, and effectively training teachers to cater to diverse learning needs. Inclusive education not only fosters a sense of equality and social cohesion but also maximizes the potential of all children, contributing to the nation’s overall development.

Enhancing Parent and Community Involvement:

To create a holistic and supportive learning environment, it is essential to enhance the involvement of parents and the wider community in education. Establishing partnerships between schools, parents, and community organizations can facilitate collaborative efforts in promoting education. This can involve initiatives such as parent-teacher associations, community outreach programs, and awareness campaigns on the importance of education. Engaging parents and the community can contribute to increased school attendance, reduced dropout rates, and improved educational outcomes for children in Burundi.

Integration of Technology in Education:

Integrating technology in education can revolutionize the learning experience for students in Burundi. Access to computers, internet connectivity, and digital learning resources can enhance teaching and learning methods, promote interactive and self-directed learning, and foster digital literacy skills. The government should prioritize initiatives to provide schools with the necessary technological infrastructure and ensure that teachers receive adequate training to utilize technology in their classrooms effectively. By embracing technology, Burundi can bridge the digital divide and equip its students with the skills needed for the modern world.

Monitoring and Evaluation:

A robust monitoring and evaluation system should be established to assess the progress and impact of education initiatives in Burundi. Regular assessments of school infrastructure, teacher quality, student performance, and dropout rates are essential to identify areas of improvement and make informed policy decisions. Additionally, collecting data on gender disparities, educational equity, and access to education can help design targeted interventions. Monitoring and evaluation provide the necessary feedback loop to ensure that efforts to enhance the education system in Burundi are effective and sustainable.

Violence has affected the infraestructure of schools in the country. Photo by EU/ECHO/Anouk Delafortrie

Investing in school infrastructure:

The government should prioritize investments in the construction and rehabilitation of schools. Adequate classrooms, furniture, and facilities are essential for creating a conducive learning environment.

Expanding access to education:

Efforts should be made to improve access to education, particularly in rural areas. This can be achieved by constructing additional schools, recruiting and training more qualified teachers, and providing transportation subsidies to ensure students can reach schools despite the distance.

Improving the quality of education:

The government must focus on improving the quality of education by enhancing teacher training programs and attracting skilled educators. Additionally, ensuring the availability of updated textbooks, learning materials, and technological resources is crucial for fostering a quality learning environment.

Reducing dropout rates:

To address the high dropout rates, comprehensive strategies must be implemented. This includes targeted interventions to alleviate poverty, awareness campaigns to discourage early marriages, and initiatives to provide financial assistance to families struggling with school fees.

Addressing these challenges for children with a disability requires a concerted effort from the government, educators, families, and civil society organizations. The following interventions can help improve educational opportunities for children with disabilities:

Inclusive policies and legislation:

The government should establish and enforce inclusive education policies that protect the rights of children with disabilities and ensure their access to quality education. This includes promoting inclusive practices, providing reasonable accommodations, and eliminating school discrimination.

Training and professional development:

Teachers and education professionals need specialized training on inclusive education and strategies to support children with disabilities. This training should focus on adapting teaching methods, creating accessible learning materials, and using assistive technology effectively.

Provision of support services:

Adequate resources should be allocated to provide necessary support services, such as speech therapy, occupational therapy, and psychological support, to children with disabilities. This includes recruiting and training specialized professionals who can work directly with these children.

Infrastructure and accessibility:

Schools should be equipped with appropriate infrastructure and facilities to ensure accessibility for children with disabilities. This involves constructing wheelchair ramps, installing accessible toilets, and adapting classrooms to accommodate different types of disabilities.

Awareness and community engagement:

Conducting awareness campaigns to combat stigma, raise awareness about disabilities, and promote the importance of inclusive education is essential. Engaging parents, communities, and local organizations in educating children with disabilities can help foster an inclusive and supportive environment.

By addressing these challenges and implementing inclusive practices, Burundi can create a more inclusive education system that ensures equal educational opportunities for all children, including those with disabilities.


Burundi’s education system faces significant challenges, including substandard school infrastructure, limited access to education, low quality of education, and high dropout rates. These issues have profound implications for the country’s development and the well-being of its population. However, these challenges can be overcome with the joint efforts of the government, donors, and civil society. By investing in school infrastructure, expanding access to education, improving the quality of instruction, and implementing strategies to reduce dropout rates, Burundi can pave the way for a brighter future, ensuring that all children have equal opportunities to access quality education.


United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). (2018). Education for All Global Monitoring Report: Education Progress and Challenges in Burundi. Retrieved from

World Bank. (2020). Burundi Education Sector Analysis: Challenges and Opportunities for System Improvement. Retrieved from

UNICEF. (2019). Education in Emergencies Annual Report 2019 – Burundi. Retrieved from

Human Rights Watch. (2017). Burundi: Girls’ Education under Threat. Retrieved from

Save the Children. (2020). Education in Burundi: Challenges and Opportunities. Retrieved from

Plan International. (2019). Education in Burundi: Challenges and Solutions. Retrieved from

Handicap International. (2018). Education for All in Burundi: Study on Inclusive Education. Retrieved from

Burundi Ministry of Education. (2019). Strategic Plan for Education and Vocational Training 2018-2027. Retrieved from

African Development Bank Group. (2017). Burundi Country Strategy Paper 2017-2021. Retrieved from

The New Humanitarian. (2020). Burundi’s Education System Faces Multiple Crises. Retrieved from

Educational Challenges in Libya

Written by Joseph Kamanga


Libya is a North African country with a turbulent history of political instability and armed conflicts. Education is a fundamental pillar of any nation’s development, and overcoming these challenges is crucial for fostering a brighter future for Libya’s citizens.

Historical Context of Libya’s Education System

To understand the current state of education in Libya, it is essential to consider its historical context. During the rule of Colonel Muammar Gaddafi, the education system primarily focused on ideological indoctrination rather than academic excellence. This approach neglected critical thinking and innovation, resulting in an education system that failed to equip students with the necessary skills for personal and professional growth.

Historical Context of Libya’s Education System

Under Colonel Muammar Gaddafi’s rule, the curriculum promoted the regime’s propaganda and political agenda, neglecting critical thinking, innovation, and academic rigour. As a result, students lacked the necessary skills to thrive in a rapidly changing world and contribute to the nation’s development.

Impact of Political Instability and Armed Conflicts

The political instability and armed conflicts that ensued after the Arab Spring in 2011 severely impacted Libya’s education system. Educational institutions became targets of violence, leading to damaged infrastructure and disrupted learning environments. Many schools and universities were forced to close, and students and teachers were displaced. Consequently, educational progress was hindered, resulting in high dropout rates and limited access to education, particularly for vulnerable populations.

Inadequate Infrastructure and Resources

Decades of neglect and underinvestment have left Libya’s educational infrastructure in dire conditions. Many schools lack sufficient classrooms, face overcrowding, and lack basic amenities like electricity, water, and sanitation facilities. Dilapidated buildings and insufficient resources create an unsuitable learning environment for students. Furthermore, there is a shortage of educational resources, including textbooks, teaching materials, and modern technology, limiting students’ access to quality education.

Teacher Shortage

Libya’s ongoing turmoil and economic challenges have triggered a significant brain drain, with highly educated professionals and skilled teachers leaving the country in search of better opportunities and security. This exodus has resulted in a severe shortage of qualified teachers, with many classrooms staffed by inexperienced or underqualified individuals. The lack of well-trained and experienced educators compromises the quality of education and impedes the development of students’ intellectual capacities.

Gender Inequality in Education

Gender inequality remains a persistent challenge in Libya’s education system. Although efforts have been made to promote gender parity, cultural and societal norms continue to pose obstacles. Girls face multiple barriers to accessing education, including early marriage, gender-based violence, and conservative attitudes towards women’s education. Many families prioritize boys’ education over girls’, perpetuating gender disparities. Addressing these challenges requires targeted interventions, such as awareness campaigns, community engagement, and policies that promote and protect girls’ right to education. Empowering girls through education enhances their prospects and contributes to societal development and gender equality.

Challenges faced by Children with Disability in Libya

Disabled children in Libya face significant challenges in accessing quality education and experiencing inclusive learning environments. This section will explore the educational challenges specific to disabled children in Libya and discuss potential strategies to address these issues.

Limited Access to Inclusive Education:

One of the primary challenges for disabled children in Libya is the limited access to inclusive education. Many schools lack the necessary infrastructure, resources, and trained personnel to accommodate students with disabilities. As a result, disabled children often face barriers to entry, preventing them from accessing education on an equal basis with their non-disabled peers.

Discrimination and Stigma:

Discrimination and stigma against disabled individuals persist in Libyan society, leading to exclusion and marginalization. Negative attitudes and misconceptions about disabilities contribute to a lack of acceptance and understanding within educational settings. Disabled children may face social barriers, prejudice, and bullying, further hindering their educational experiences and well-being.

Inadequate Teacher Training:

The lack of specialized training for teachers to cater to the diverse needs of disabled students is a significant challenge. Teachers often lack the knowledge and skills to adapt teaching methodologies, provide appropriate accommodations, and employ assistive technologies to facilitate inclusive learning. Consequently, disabled children may not receive the individualized support and reasonable adjustments necessary for their educational success.

Limited Availability of Support Services:

Support services, such as speech therapy, occupational therapy, and psychological support, are limited in Libya. Disabled children require these services to enhance their communication skills, motor development, and emotional well-being. The scarcity of these services hampers the holistic development of disabled students and impedes their educational progress.

Inaccessible Physical Infrastructure:

Many educational institutions in Libya lack accessible physical infrastructure, making it difficult for disabled children to navigate school premises independently. The absence of ramps, elevators, accessible toilets, and sensory-friendly classrooms creates barriers to mobility, participation, and overall engagement in the learning process.

Limited Availability of Assistive Technologies:

The availability of assistive technologies, such as hearing aids, Braille devices, and screen readers, is limited in Libya. These technologies are crucial in enabling disabled children to access information, communicate effectively, and participate fully in educational activities. The lack of access to these technologies significantly hinders the educational opportunities of disabled students.

Inadequate Policy Framework:

The absence of a comprehensive policy framework addressing the educational needs of disabled children contributes to the challenges they face. Clear policies and guidelines are essential to ensure inclusive education, promote anti-discrimination measures, allocate resources, and enforce accountability at all levels of the education system.

Educational workshop. Photo by Saleh Deryag

Strategies to Address the Challenges:

Curriculum Reforms and Quality Assurance

Revitalizing the curriculum is vital for modernizing Libya’s education system and equipping students with the skills needed for the 21st century. Curriculum reforms should emphasize practical and vocational training, fostering creativity, critical thinking, problem-solving, and digital literacy. Updating the curriculum to align with global educational standards and labour market demands can enhance students’ employability and entrepreneurial skills. Additionally, establishing a robust quality assurance framework to monitor and evaluate educational institutions will ensure that students receive a high standard of education. Regular assessments, teacher training, and accreditation mechanisms can promote accountability and quality in the education system.

Promoting Access to Education

Expanding access to education is crucial for addressing disparities in educational opportunities. Particular attention should be given to marginalized and remote areas with limited access to quality education. Investing in developing educational infrastructure in these regions, including schools, libraries, and educational centres, is essential. Additionally, providing financial assistance, scholarships, and grants to students from disadvantaged backgrounds can help mitigate financial barriers that hinder access to education. Promoting inclusive policies that ensure access for children with disabilities and those from displaced or refugee backgrounds is also crucial in fostering a more equitable education system.

Strengthening Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET)

Promoting technical and vocational education and training (TVET) is essential for equipping students with practical skills aligned with the job market’s needs. Collaboration between educational institutions, private sector industries, and government entities can help design and implement relevant TVET programs. Providing students with opportunities for internships, apprenticeships, and hands-on training can bridge the gap between education and employment. Moreover, promoting entrepreneurship and innovation within the TVET framework can foster economic growth and self-employment opportunities.

Enhancing Teacher Training and Professional Development

Addressing the teacher shortage and improving the quality of education requires a focus on teacher training and professional development. Providing pre-service and in-service training programs can enhance teachers’ pedagogical skills, content knowledge, and classroom management abilities. Additionally, mentoring programs, peer-to-peer learning, and continuous professional development opportunities can support teachers’ growth and keep them updated with modern teaching methodologies and technology. Recognizing and incentivizing the teaching profession through competitive salaries and career advancement opportunities can also attract and retain qualified educators.

Addressing Socio-Economic Disparities in Education

Socio-economic disparities significantly impact access to quality education in Libya. Children from disadvantaged backgrounds face numerous challenges, including poverty, limited resources, and lack of educational support. To address these disparities, targeted interventions are necessary, including implementing inclusive education policies, providing comprehensive support services, offering school feeding programs, and investing in early childhood education. Collaboration with local communities, NGOs, and international organizations can contribute to creating a more equitable educational landscape.

Leveraging Technology for Educational Advancement

Integrating technology in education can overcome geographical barriers, enhance learning outcomes, and provide access to various educational resources. Investing in digital infrastructure, such as internet connectivity and computer labs, can enable the integration of e-learning initiatives through digital tools and platforms in classrooms.

Developing Inclusive Education Policies: Libya should develop and implement inclusive education policies that emphasize the rights of disabled children to access quality education on an equal basis with their peers. These policies should promote inclusive practices, reasonable accommodations, and the integration of disabled students into mainstream schools.

Providing Teacher Training and Professional Development: Invest in specialized training programs to enhance teachers’ knowledge and skills in catering to the needs of disabled students. Training should focus on inclusive teaching methodologies, assessment techniques, and assistive technologies.

Improving Infrastructure and Accessibility: Upgrade existing educational facilities to ensure accessibility for disabled children. This includes providing ramps, elevators, accessible toilets, and sensory-friendly learning spaces. New constructions should follow universal design principles to ensure inclusivity from the outset.

Strengthening Support Services: Increase the availability of support services such as speech therapy, occupational therapy, and psychological support within educational institutions. This includes training and employing specialists to provide individualized support to disabled students.

Promoting Awareness and Sensitization:

Conduct awareness campaigns to challenge societal stereotypes, reduce discrimination, and promote inclusivity. These campaigns can target schools, communities, and the media, raising awareness about the rights and abilities of disabled children and fostering a more inclusive mindset.

Enhancing Collaboration and Partnerships:

Promote collaboration between government bodies, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and disability rights organizations to address the educational challenges faced by disabled children. This collaboration can help in resource mobilization, sharing best practices, and advocating for the rights of disabled children within the education sector.

Integrating Assistive Technologies:

Invest in the procurement and distribution of assistive technologies to enable disabled children to access educational materials and participate fully in learning activities. Collaborate with technology providers and organizations to ensure assistive devices and software availability and affordability.

Monitoring and Evaluation:

Establish mechanisms for monitoring and evaluating the progress of inclusive education initiatives for disabled children. Regular assessments can help identify gaps, measure the effectiveness of interventions, and inform policy development and implementation.

International Support and Cooperation:

Seek international support and cooperation to address the educational challenges faced by disabled children in Libya. Collaborate with international organizations and donor agencies to access funding, expertise, and resources for implementing inclusive education programs.


Addressing the educational challenges faced by both the non-disabled and disabled children in Libya requires a comprehensive approach that encompasses policy reforms, teacher training, infrastructure improvements, support services, awareness campaigns, and collaboration among stakeholders. Efforts towards inclusive education not only benefit disabled children but also contribute to the overall development and inclusivity of Libyan society as a whole. By prioritizing inclusive education and fostering an enabling environment, Libya can ensure disabled children have equal opportunities to access quality education, realize their potential, and actively participate in society.


Elzawi, A., & Fadel, K. (2020). Challenges facing education in Libya: An analysis of the educational system during and after the revolution. Journal of Education and Practice, 11(6), 1-9.

UNICEF. (2019). Education in Libya: Situation analysis and strategic framework. Retrieved from

Alaedeen, E. (2017). Education for children with disabilities in Libya: Policy, legislation, and challenges. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 21(4), 392-404.

Mundy, K., & Sharpe, A. (2016). Education and state-building in Libya: Between restoration and revolution. Compare: A Journal of Comparative and International Education, 46(6), 868-891.

European Union External Action. (2019). Education in Libya. Retrieved from

Abdelsalam, R., & Keshavarz, M. (2021). Educational development in post-revolution Libya: A critical analysis of challenges and prospects. Journal of Education and Training Studies, 9(2), 11-26.

Save the Children. (2018). Barriers to education for children in Libya. Retrieved from

Human Rights Watch. (2019). Libya: Armed groups target civilians. Retrieved from

United Nations Support Mission in Libya (UNSMIL). (2017). UNSMIL Human Rights Report on Civilian Casualties – January to June 2017. Retrieved from

Disability Rights International (DRI). (2018). Making education a reality for children with disabilities in Libya. Retrieved from

UNESCO. (2019). Education for people with disabilities in the Arab region: A regional overview. Retrieved from

Human Rights Watch. (2016). Education barriers for children with disabilities in Lebanon. Retrieved from

World Health Organization (WHO). (2020). Assistive technology. Retrieved from

United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UNCRPD). (2006). Retrieved from