The Educational Crisis in Tigray: The Devastating Effects of Civil War in Northwestern Ethiopia

Written by Joan Vilalta

After enduring the hardships of the Covid-19 pandemic, which implied a range of socioeconomic challenges, including educational impoverishment due to the closure of schools, the Tigray territory in northwestern Ethiopia suffered yet another blow in November of 2020, when civil war struck the region. The consequences of the conflict between the Tigray People’s Liberation Front (TPLF) and Ethiopia’s National Defence Forces (ENDF), aided by the Eritrean military, represent one of the most devastating humanitarian crises in the world, piling on top of several longstanding crises in Ethiopia such as severe drought and acute famine. The consequences of this conflict are broad, including a critical situation regarding education. 

According to the latest UN OCHA (United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs) report on the matter, around 85% of the schools in Tigray have been partially or entirely damaged by the conflict, and some 411.000 school-age children are in dire need of essential services, which profoundly affects their educational development. The UN plans to cover the needs of 3.6 million affected children and almost 190.000 teachers by providing accelerated learning activities for those who have been out of school for more than three years and providing psychosocial and mental health support services and learning packages.[1]

The current conflict was prompted by a power struggle between the TPLF and the current Ethiopian president Abiy Ahmed. The TPLF ruled the country for over thirty years until Ahmed came to power in 2018 to dismantle the TPLF’s regime. As Ahmed became the president of the country, he managed to rearrange the political power while ostracizing the TPLF. Parallelly, Ahmed also managed to end the longstanding war with neighbouring Eritrea.

On the 4th of November 2020, the government accused the TPLF of attacking a military base near Mekelle and ordered a military intervention to address the situation while calling for the aid of Eritrean forces and Tigray’s neighbouring region’s militias. Since then, the scale of the conflict has grown exponentially, with both sides committing mass killings and other atrocities that have called the attention of the international community. Ethnic discrimination against Tigrayans has been speculated to be entangled with the motivations of this war. It should be considered that while the focus of the conflict was on Tigray, conflict consequences eventually extended to the neighbouring regions of Amhara and Afar.

In March 2022, the government agreed to an indefinite ceasefire, but the conflict resumed in August. Nevertheless, a permanent cessation of hostilities was agreed upon in November 2022. While at this moment, the situation seems to have calmed down, Ethiopia now faces the aftermath of a devastating conflict, which calls for accountability on both sides as well as amending the several crises stemming from the war, among them the educational crisis. 

One of the main reasons why the war on Tigray provoked an educational crisis was the military occupation of schools to use them as bases, accompanied by the plundering, pillaging, and looting of academic centres and the extensive structural damage suffered by the buildings. 

IDP families and children at Primaray School in Mekelle IDP center April 15, 2021. Photo by UNICEF Ethiopia.

There have been many examples of this on both sides of the conflict. For instance, the historical school of Atse Yohannes in Mekelle was used by the ENDF for half a year, Eritrean forces used a primary school in Basen, and the TPLF used an elementary school in Bissober. This, of course, prompted the closure of schools, impeding the attendance of teachers and students, and resulted in extensive damage to infrastructure and school material since the use of the school would make the school a likely confrontation scenario. In some cases, it even resulted in derogatory messages towards locals being painted on the school walls. 

According to several sources, around 2.8 million children missed out on education because of the war, and more than 2000 causalities have been reported regarding students and teachers. 

The death of teachers and principals also represents a problem since it has generated a shortage of school staff, especially in areas where access to such qualifications is reduced. Due to this shortage, teachers are now forced to have many students in each class, making monitoring students’ progress closely difficult.

Beyond the military use of schools, a range of problems regarding quality and access to education emerged from the war. Trauma and psychological duress have been rampant among students and teachers, negatively impacting their capacity to attain their learning objectives. 

Families’ financial losses provoked by the conflict, combined with extreme drought, famine, and health insecurity, have prompted students to stop learning activities to contribute to their family’s economy. Poverty has also hampered the recovery of damaged schools and the capacity to provide a salary for school staff. Teachers have also been more unable to perform their duties since they had to focus on surviving the situation.

The war on Tigray has generated an estimated 3.5 million internally displaced people, mostly women and children. Internally displaced students often found themselves in precarious situations and could not attend school. Students who moved to regions with different indigenous languages also found a barrier to school integration. In many cases, even to this day, internally displaced people and refugees from the war have sheltered themselves inside schools, the occupation of the space being an obstacle to resuming regular school activity.

According to research on the impact of armed violence on students’ educational attainment in Tigray, the school enrollment rates dropped dramatically due to conflict (almost a 10% decline in the studied areas), and educational wastage overall increased, with dropout and repetition rates at risk of rising. Moreover, the long-term impact of the educational crises is the potential lack of social capital and skills of future generations, rendering the communities of Tigray even more vulnerable.

While humanitarian aid is currently reaching the affected areas in northwestern Ethiopia, it should be noted that the mere reopening of schools without further consideration won’t be a fully effective solution. Facilities will need to be safely rebuilt, and students and teachers will have to deal with the traumatic experience of war and loss in the coming years. Tigray’s educational system was not built overnight, and recovery will not be quick either. Aid and resources such as school materials or teacher training will be crucial to restore the system.

Finally, it should be noted that this educational crisis was not entirely unavoidable. The occupation and looting of schools for military purposes are rarely justified under Ethiopian law. They can constitute a war crime and a human rights violation since it deprives children of access to education. More than that, the African Committee of Experts on the Rights and Welfare of the Child has urged African countries to ban the use of schools for military purposes or to enact specific measures to discourage it. The African Union Peace and Security Council has also called upon African countries to endorse the Safe Schools Declaration, which contains concrete protection measures. In this sense, Broken Chalk encourages the Ethiopian authorities to support such mandates, to strengthen the law and its application to protect the educational system, as well as to provide the necessary aid sociopsychological and material to affected students and school staff during the coming years to ensure they can recover and strive for the development they deserve.


Assefa, Y., Tilwani, S. A., Moges, B. T., & Shah, M. A. (2022). The impact of armed violence on students’ educational attainment and the role of parents in resilience schooling and the education process. Heliyon, 8(12), e12192.

Cable News Network (CNN). (2022, November 11). Tigray conflict: Fast facts. CNN. Retrieved from:

Ethiopia Insight. (2022, August 14). Students’ learning in Tigray is being crippled by the war. Ethiopia Insight. Retrieved from:

Human Rights Watch. (2021, May 28). Ethiopia: Tigray schools occupied, looted. Human Rights Watch. Retrieved from:

Humanium. (2022, August 9). Ethnic cleansing and grave violations of children’s rights in Ethiopia’s Western Tigray region. Humanium. Retrieved from:

Link Education. (2022, January 6). Impact of the Northern Ethiopian War on education. Link Education. Retrieved from:

NPR. (2021, March 5). 9 things to know about the unfolding crisis in Ethiopia’s Tigray region. NPR. Retrieved from:


Educational Challenges in Burundi

Written by Joseph Kamanga


Burundi, a small landlocked country in East Africa with a population of over 11 million people, has been plagued by political instability and violence throughout its history. These challenges have severely impacted the country’s education system, hindering progress and development. While some improvements have been made in recent years to enhance access to education, Burundi continues to face several critical challenges, including substandard school infrastructure, limited access to education, low quality of education, and high dropout rates. Addressing these issues requires a collaborative effort involving the government, donors, and civil society to implement sustainable solutions.

Students are eagerly waiting for the completion of their new school in Mabayi, Burundi. Photo by United Nations Development Programme.

Substandard School Infrastructure

One of the primary obstacles affecting education in Burundi is the substandard condition of school infrastructure. Many schools lack the necessary facilities and resources, impeding effective teaching and learning. The critical problems associated with school infrastructure in Burundi include:

Lack of classrooms:

 A significant number of schools in Burundi suffer from a shortage of classrooms, resulting in overcrowding. Students often have to sit on the floor or study outside, hampering their ability to learn and concentrate.

Insufficient number of teachers:

In 2017, Burundi had only 40,000 teachers for a population of over 11 million, resulting in an alarming student-to-teacher ratio. The lack of teachers compromises the quality of education as individual attention to students becomes challenging.

Shortage of textbooks and learning materials:

Access to textbooks and learning materials is limited, with only 50% of students having access to these resources in 2017. This scarcity hampers students’ ability to actively participate in class and complete their assignments effectively.

Inadequate water and sanitation facilities:

Approximately 50% of schools lack proper water and sanitation facilities, depriving students of clean water and hygienic toilets. This lack of basic amenities contributes to the spread of diseases, making it difficult for students to attend school regularly.

Insufficient electricity:

Only 30% of schools in Burundi have access to electricity, restricting the use of electronic devices and hindering the integration of technology in teaching and learning practices.

Deteriorating school buildings:

Approximately 30% of schools in Burundi require urgent repairs, rendering them unsafe and unsuitable for students. Dilapidated infrastructure adds to the challenges faced by both students and teachers.

Limited Access to Education

Access to education in rural areas of Burundi is significantly limited due to various factors:


Poverty is a significant barrier preventing families from sending their children to school, even when educational institutions are available. The inability to afford school fees and related expenses hampers children’s access to education.


The geographical remoteness of rural areas in Burundi makes it challenging for children to access schools, resulting in limited educational opportunities.

Gender discrimination:

Girls, particularly in rural areas, face gender-based barriers to education. Cultural beliefs often dictate that girls should prioritize household responsibilities, impeding their access to formal education. Additionally, the lack of adequate sanitation facilities specifically designed for girls discourages their attendance.

The combined effect of poverty, distance, and gender discrimination has led to an estimated 600,000 girls in Burundi not attending school during the 2017-2018 academic year.

Low Quality of Education

The issue of low quality of education in Burundi encompasses various factors that contribute to a substandard learning experience for students. These factors can be attributed to the lack of resources, inadequate teacher training, outdated curriculum, and insufficient focus on student-centred learning approaches as follows:

Insufficient focus on student-centred learning: A student-centred approach to education emphasizes active participation, collaboration, and critical thinking. However, the traditional teaching methods employed in Burundi often prioritize rote memorization and passive learning. Shifting towards student-centred approaches, such as project-based learning, inquiry-based learning, and interactive teaching methods, can foster a deeper understanding of concepts and improve students’ ability to apply knowledge in practical situations.

The quality of education in Burundi is generally low, attributed to several factors:

Lack of qualified teachers:

A considerable number of teachers in Burundi need to be qualified or adequately trained. Moreover, the low salaries offered to qualified teachers often discourage highly skilled individuals from pursuing a career in education. As a result, the quality of instruction suffers. The quality of education is closely linked to the competence and skills of teachers. In Burundi, there is a need to invest in comprehensive teacher training programs that focus on pedagogical techniques, subject knowledge, and classroom management. Without proper training, teachers may rely on outdated teaching methods or struggle to effectively engage students in the learning process. Ongoing professional development opportunities can help teachers stay updated with best practices and enhance their instructional strategies.

Poor quality textbooks:

Many textbooks in Burundi are outdated or inaccurate, failing to provide up-to-date and accurate information to students. This hinders their ability to acquire knowledge effectively.

Outdated Curriculum:

The curriculum used in Burundi’s education system may suffer from outdated content, limited relevance to real-world contexts, and a lack of alignment with modern educational standards. Updating the curriculum to reflect current knowledge and skills required in the job market is crucial. A contemporary curriculum should promote critical thinking, problem-solving, creativity, and digital literacy, equipping students with the competencies necessary for future success.

Insufficient resources:

Many schools in Burundi need more essential resources, such as textbooks, learning materials, and technological equipment. Without access to up-to-date and relevant resources, students may struggle to grasp concepts and engage in meaningful learning. Insufficient resources also limit teachers’ ability to deliver comprehensive lessons and provide students with hands-on experiences that enhance their understanding of subjects.

High dropout rates:

Burundi experiences alarmingly high dropout rates among girls and children from disadvantaged backgrounds. Factors contributing to these high dropout rates include:

a. Poverty: Economic constraints force many families to prioritize immediate needs over education, making it difficult for children to continue their studies.

b. Early marriage: The prevalence of early marriage in Burundi prevents girls from pursuing education beyond a certain age. Early marriage often leads to the discontinuation of their schooling.

c. The need to work: Many children in Burundi are compelled to work to support their families, leaving them with no time or opportunity to attend school.

Addressing these complex challenges requires a multifaceted approach involving various stakeholders.

The Charlemagne School in Burundi. Photo by Bernd Weisbrod

Challenges faced by Children with disability

Children with disabilities face significant challenges in accessing quality education in Burundi. The educational system in the country often lacks the necessary infrastructure, resources, and inclusive policies to accommodate their diverse needs. Here are some key challenges faced by children with disabilities in Burundi’s education system:

Inadequate infrastructure and facilities:

Many schools in Burundi lack the necessary infrastructure and facilities to support children with disabilities. This includes wheelchair-accessible ramps, adapted classrooms, and accessible toilets. The physical barriers in schools make it difficult for children with mobility impairments to navigate the campus and fully participate in educational activities.

Limited availability of specialized support:

Specialized support services, such as trained teachers, therapists, and assistive devices, are scarce for children with disabilities in Burundi. These children often require individualized attention and tailored instructional approaches to address their specific learning needs. The need for more trained professionals and appropriate assistive technology hampers their educational progress.

Discrimination and stigma:

Children with disabilities in Burundi often face discrimination and stigma within their communities and schools. This can create psychological barriers affecting their self-esteem, confidence, and willingness to engage in learning. Negative attitudes and misconceptions about disability can lead to exclusion and social isolation.

Limited awareness and understanding:

There is a lack of awareness and understanding among educators, parents, and the wider community about disabilities and inclusive education. This can result in a failure to recognize and accommodate the diverse learning needs of children with disabilities. Promoting awareness campaigns and training teachers and stakeholders to foster an inclusive and supportive learning environment is crucial.

Inaccessible curriculum and teaching methods:

Burundi’s curriculum and teaching methods often do not consider the diverse learning styles and needs of children with disabilities. The instructional materials and assessments may not be adapted to cater to their specific requirements, hindering their full participation in the educational process. Adapting the curriculum and employing inclusive teaching strategies can help ensure that children with disabilities receive an equitable education.

Interventions to Improve Burundi’s Education System

To enhance the education system in Burundi, the following vital interventions are necessary:

Teacher Training and Professional Development:

To improve the quality of education in Burundi, a strong emphasis should be placed on teacher training and professional development programs. The government, in collaboration with educational institutions and international partners, should establish comprehensive training programs to enhance teachers’ skills and pedagogical techniques. Ongoing professional development opportunities should be provided to ensure that teachers are equipped with the latest teaching methodologies and subject knowledge. By investing in the professional growth of teachers, the overall quality of education in Burundi can be significantly improved.

Promoting Inclusive Education:

Another critical aspect of enhancing the education system in Burundi is promoting inclusive education. Efforts should be made to ensure that children with disabilities, those from marginalized communities, and those with special learning needs have equal access to education. This requires developing inclusive policies, providing necessary support services and resources, and effectively training teachers to cater to diverse learning needs. Inclusive education not only fosters a sense of equality and social cohesion but also maximizes the potential of all children, contributing to the nation’s overall development.

Enhancing Parent and Community Involvement:

To create a holistic and supportive learning environment, it is essential to enhance the involvement of parents and the wider community in education. Establishing partnerships between schools, parents, and community organizations can facilitate collaborative efforts in promoting education. This can involve initiatives such as parent-teacher associations, community outreach programs, and awareness campaigns on the importance of education. Engaging parents and the community can contribute to increased school attendance, reduced dropout rates, and improved educational outcomes for children in Burundi.

Integration of Technology in Education:

Integrating technology in education can revolutionize the learning experience for students in Burundi. Access to computers, internet connectivity, and digital learning resources can enhance teaching and learning methods, promote interactive and self-directed learning, and foster digital literacy skills. The government should prioritize initiatives to provide schools with the necessary technological infrastructure and ensure that teachers receive adequate training to utilize technology in their classrooms effectively. By embracing technology, Burundi can bridge the digital divide and equip its students with the skills needed for the modern world.

Monitoring and Evaluation:

A robust monitoring and evaluation system should be established to assess the progress and impact of education initiatives in Burundi. Regular assessments of school infrastructure, teacher quality, student performance, and dropout rates are essential to identify areas of improvement and make informed policy decisions. Additionally, collecting data on gender disparities, educational equity, and access to education can help design targeted interventions. Monitoring and evaluation provide the necessary feedback loop to ensure that efforts to enhance the education system in Burundi are effective and sustainable.

Violence has affected the infraestructure of schools in the country. Photo by EU/ECHO/Anouk Delafortrie

Investing in school infrastructure:

The government should prioritize investments in the construction and rehabilitation of schools. Adequate classrooms, furniture, and facilities are essential for creating a conducive learning environment.

Expanding access to education:

Efforts should be made to improve access to education, particularly in rural areas. This can be achieved by constructing additional schools, recruiting and training more qualified teachers, and providing transportation subsidies to ensure students can reach schools despite the distance.

Improving the quality of education:

The government must focus on improving the quality of education by enhancing teacher training programs and attracting skilled educators. Additionally, ensuring the availability of updated textbooks, learning materials, and technological resources is crucial for fostering a quality learning environment.

Reducing dropout rates:

To address the high dropout rates, comprehensive strategies must be implemented. This includes targeted interventions to alleviate poverty, awareness campaigns to discourage early marriages, and initiatives to provide financial assistance to families struggling with school fees.

Addressing these challenges for children with a disability requires a concerted effort from the government, educators, families, and civil society organizations. The following interventions can help improve educational opportunities for children with disabilities:

Inclusive policies and legislation:

The government should establish and enforce inclusive education policies that protect the rights of children with disabilities and ensure their access to quality education. This includes promoting inclusive practices, providing reasonable accommodations, and eliminating school discrimination.

Training and professional development:

Teachers and education professionals need specialized training on inclusive education and strategies to support children with disabilities. This training should focus on adapting teaching methods, creating accessible learning materials, and using assistive technology effectively.

Provision of support services:

Adequate resources should be allocated to provide necessary support services, such as speech therapy, occupational therapy, and psychological support, to children with disabilities. This includes recruiting and training specialized professionals who can work directly with these children.

Infrastructure and accessibility:

Schools should be equipped with appropriate infrastructure and facilities to ensure accessibility for children with disabilities. This involves constructing wheelchair ramps, installing accessible toilets, and adapting classrooms to accommodate different types of disabilities.

Awareness and community engagement:

Conducting awareness campaigns to combat stigma, raise awareness about disabilities, and promote the importance of inclusive education is essential. Engaging parents, communities, and local organizations in educating children with disabilities can help foster an inclusive and supportive environment.

By addressing these challenges and implementing inclusive practices, Burundi can create a more inclusive education system that ensures equal educational opportunities for all children, including those with disabilities.


Burundi’s education system faces significant challenges, including substandard school infrastructure, limited access to education, low quality of education, and high dropout rates. These issues have profound implications for the country’s development and the well-being of its population. However, these challenges can be overcome with the joint efforts of the government, donors, and civil society. By investing in school infrastructure, expanding access to education, improving the quality of instruction, and implementing strategies to reduce dropout rates, Burundi can pave the way for a brighter future, ensuring that all children have equal opportunities to access quality education.


United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). (2018). Education for All Global Monitoring Report: Education Progress and Challenges in Burundi. Retrieved from

World Bank. (2020). Burundi Education Sector Analysis: Challenges and Opportunities for System Improvement. Retrieved from

UNICEF. (2019). Education in Emergencies Annual Report 2019 – Burundi. Retrieved from

Human Rights Watch. (2017). Burundi: Girls’ Education under Threat. Retrieved from

Save the Children. (2020). Education in Burundi: Challenges and Opportunities. Retrieved from

Plan International. (2019). Education in Burundi: Challenges and Solutions. Retrieved from

Handicap International. (2018). Education for All in Burundi: Study on Inclusive Education. Retrieved from

Burundi Ministry of Education. (2019). Strategic Plan for Education and Vocational Training 2018-2027. Retrieved from

African Development Bank Group. (2017). Burundi Country Strategy Paper 2017-2021. Retrieved from

The New Humanitarian. (2020). Burundi’s Education System Faces Multiple Crises. Retrieved from

Educational and health crisis in Iran: Hundreds of schoolgirls fall sick in Iran, officials suspect poisoning

Written by Ivel Sestopal

Girls have been hospitalized. Photo by Iran International.

In the past months, there have been approximately 300 separate attacks taking place in more than 100 girls’ schools across Iran, elementary, middle, and high schools. The first reported attack took place on November 30th, 2022, in the city of Qom a city that is home to important Shia Muslim shrines and the religious leadership that forms the backbone of the Islamic Republic[i]. Then, on December 13th another attack was reported in the same schools, poisoning 51 schoolgirls and most of the girls were hospitalized. However, authorities dismissed the girl’s symptoms as stress, excitement, and mental contagion. But when asked, they answered that they sensed a unusual gas smell in school leading to shortness of breath, numbness, pain in the legs, and difficulty in walking. This led to an increase in the gravity of the matter. The attacks are being clearly directed at girls which is damaging to their human right to education and health safety.

In addition to the problem, there is a lack of transparency about the tests that were made on the girls which don’t allow more investigation and clarity over the causes of poisoning. When asked about the results, authorities refused to release the toxicology results citing respiratory viral disease and kidney disease as causes of death. [ii]

One of the girls was an 11-year-old girl that died citing respiratory viral disease and kidney disease as causes of death. There has been a lot of controversy about this due to the pattern that the Iranian authorities are covering the issue and pressuring families to release certain press information. Amnesty International received information from a medical doctor inside Iran that the Ministry of Health has issued a protocol to medical centers in the country ordering medical staff to attribute symptoms suffered by schoolgirls from the chemical gas attacks to “stress”[iii].  In this case, the authorities have already arrested an Iranian journalist that reported poisonings.

Another factor is that in the past months, the clerical establishment has been challenged by mass protests that erupted after the death of Mahsa Amini a Kurdish woman who was detained for not wearing her headscarf, this created social anger especially in schoolgirls when it started circulating in social media videos of girls taking off their headscarves and singing anti-establishment slogans. “It became evident that some people wanted all schools, especially girls’ schools, to be closed down,” the deputy health minister said on Sunday.[iv]

The available information only indicates the possibility of criminal acts directed at girls’ schools in those regions. As the attacks are being directly targeted to them, by using chemicals that are publicly available.

The failure of the administration not only in stopping the causes of the poisonings but also in providing information to the families and citizens has led to increasing public criticism and protests mainly organized by teachers’ unions. Some of these protests were stopped through physical violence including pepper spray and tear gas by the security forces. Some of these attacks were done to mothers that protested outside the schools. There have also been arrests of professors after the attack of March 8th.

We can conclude that the authorities’ opinions and roles have been ambiguous, showing their incapacity to defend the rights of the girls and not being able to clearly divide the political and social situation that Iran is facing with the lives of hundreds of innocent girls.


[i] Afshang, M. (2023). Iran investigates poisoning of hundreds of schoolgirls with toxic gas. BBC News. Retrieved from:

[ii] Amnesty International (2023). Iran: Millions of schoolgirls at risk of poisoning. Retrieved from:

[iii] Amnesty International (2023). Iran: Millions of schoolgirls at risk of poisoning. Retrieved from:

[iv] Afshang, M. (2023). Iran investigates poisoning of hundreds of schoolgirls with toxic gas. BBC News Retrieved from:

Educational Challenges in Palestine

Written by Mayeda Tayyab

Photo by Jorge Fernández Salas on Unsplash

Education is a human right that should be accessible to all individuals, regardless of their circumstances. In Palestine, the quality and accessibility of education have been significantly impacted by ongoing occupation and colonization, political instability, and economic challenges. This article will discuss the current state of education in Palestine, focusing on the quality and accessibility of education. The article will also explore the challenges that students and educators face and examine some of the initiatives that have been implemented to improve the quality and accessibility of education in Palestine.

The Palestinian territories include the West Bank and the Gaza Strip, which are geographically separated from each other. The Palestinian National Authority (PNA) is responsible for the education system in the West Bank, while Hamas controls the education system in Gaza. In the last 27 years, Palestinian educators have had to overcome severe problems due to the Israeli occupation[1] – including but not limited to frequent closures of educational institutions and the banning of textbooks and other educational materials. Education in Palestine is compulsory and free for children between the ages of six and fifteen. In 2018 UNICEF reported that across the state of Palestine, 95.4 percent of children were enrolled in formal education[2]. However, out of all the children in school in Palestine, nearly 25 percent of boys and 7 percent of girls drop out after the age of 15[3]. Furthermore, 22.5 percent of boys and 30 percent of girls with a disability, between the ages of 6 and 15 years, have never enrolled in school[4]. This is due to increasing poverty and the Israeli occupation of Palestine which has a significant impact on the accessibility and the quality of education available to children.

Quality of Education

The quality of education in Palestine has been greatly affected by the ongoing occupation, colonization, and political instability. During the first 10 years of the Israeli occupation, no new schools were built in Palestine, significantly hindering the expansion of educational facilities in the region, and resulting in the decline of the number of educators available in contrast to the increasing population[5]. Due to the lack in the number of educational facilities and thus educational staff, classrooms have become overcrowded with up to 40 to 60 students in a single classroom, making it difficult for teachers to provide individual attention and support to each student[6]. This can result in students falling behind and struggling to keep up with their peers.

According to a report by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization[7], the shortage of resources and facilities is another one of the main challenges facing education in Palestine. Many schools lack basic amenities such as textbooks, computers, and laboratories, and many teachers are not properly trained and do not have access to modern teaching methods and technologies. Lack of funding and the banning of books and educational materials limit the resources available to students in school libraries[8]. Many extracurricular activities which are essential for the social and cultural development of students have been banned by Israeli authorities. Due to this lack of facilities, almost half the Palestinian children in East Jerusalem are forced to attend private or unofficial educational institutions[9].

The quality of education in Palestine is also affected by the lack of political stability and safety in the region. According to a report by Save the Children (2020)[10], the ongoing conflict and political instability have resulted in frequent school closures and disruptions to the academic calendar, leading to students missing out on valuable classroom time and falling behind in their studies. Almost half a million children in Palestine require humanitarian assistance to access quality education[11]. There are frequent closures of the Gaza Strip, and West Bank – including East Jerusalem – during times of violent attacks by Israel, restricting any physical access to daily activities and essential services such as health care, water, and education[12]. Children also regularly experience fear of violence and intimidation as they must frequently pass through checkpoints or commute by settlements to get to schools located in high-risk areas[13].

Accessibility of Education

The accessibility of education in Palestine is affected by several factors. According to a report by the United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East (UNRWA) (2021)[14], one of the main factors affecting accessibility is the physical separation between the West Bank and Gaza. This separation makes it difficult for students to move between the two regions and can result in students missing out on educational opportunities and resources that are only available in one region. Children usually must travel long distances to get to school. A parent talking about his 10-year-old son living in the Shuafat refugee camp said that his son spends four hours each day traveling to and from school for the monthly cost of £85, while his other child takes a three-hour journey to a different school[15]. As discussed earlier, the impact of the Israeli occupation on access to education is also a significant factor. According to a report by the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) (2021)[16], students and teachers often face checkpoints, roadblocks, and other obstacles. In some cases, schools have been closed or destroyed during military operations, resulting in the displacement of students and teachers.

Palestinian girls at a school in Ramallah. – Photo by Samar Hazboun, UNWomen

The economic situation in Palestine also affects the accessibility of education. According to UNICEF (2018), many families struggle to afford the costs associated with education, such as transportation, school supplies, and uniforms[17]. This can result in children being unable to attend school or dropping out early. Financial difficulties are one of the primary reasons for Palestinian children dropping out of school. However, children in Palestine also face many other serious issues such as child labor (3% of the total number of children between the ages of 10-17 years were found to be taking on paid and unpaid labor work), early marriages (out of all the marriages registered in 2018, 20% were of girls under the age of 18), and imprisonment (in 2019, 889 cases of detention of children under the age of 18 in Israeli prisons were reported[18].

Furthermore, access to education is particularly challenging for girls and children with disabilities. While there has been some progress in recent years, cultural and social barriers continue to prevent many girls from attending school. According to UNICEF, the net enrollment rate for girls in primary education in Palestine is 96%, compared to 98% for boys[19]. An example of this is early marriage as highlighted above. In contrast of 20% of marriages reported in 2018 involved girls under 18, and only 1% of these marriages included boys under the age of 18. This shows the lack of importance given to the education of women and girls compared to those of boys and men, who might be experiencing societal and familial pressures to get married and start families at the prime age for receiving secondary and higher education. In addition, children with disabilities face numerous barriers to accessing education, including the lack of specialized facilities and trained teachers.

Efforts to Improve the Quality and Accessibility of Education

Efforts to improve the quality and accessibility of education in Palestine have focused on increasing access to educational resources and reducing the financial burden on families. According to a report by the Palestinian Ministry of Education and Higher Education[20], the government has implemented policies aimed at providing free education and increasing access to scholarships and financial aid. NGOs and international organizations have also provided support for the development of new schools and the renovation of existing schools, as well as providing teaching materials and training for teachers. Although there is still a long way to tackle societal and political issues that are hindering access to education for children in Palestine and threatening their safety, steps are being taken to at least find solutions to economic struggles.


In conclusion, the quality and accessibility of education in Palestine are significantly impacted by ongoing conflict, political instability, and economic challenges. Palestinian students and educators face numerous challenges that affect the quality of education they receive, including a shortage of resources and facilities, high student-to-teacher ratios, frequent school closures and disruptions to academic life, and the general threat to their physical safety. Although efforts are being made to tackle the economic issues and developing proper infrastructure for educational institutions, the safety threat and issues related to the ongoing colonization of Palestine will continue to persist until the achievement of permanent political stability in the region.




[1] Abu-Duhou, I. (1996). Schools in Palestine under the Occupation and the Palestinian National Authority. Palestine-Israel Journal of Politics, Economics and Culture, 3(1). Available at:

[2] UNICEF. (2018). State of Palestine: Out-of-school children. Available at:  

[3] See footnote 2.

[4] see footnote 2.

[5] See footnote 1

[6] See footnote 1

[7] UNESCO. (2020). Education in Palestine. Available from

[8] See footnote 1

[9] Sherwood, H. (2010). Palestinian children in East Jerusalem face classroom shortage, says report. Available at:

[10] Save the Children. (2020). Danger is Our Reality: The impact of conflict and the occupation on education in the West Bank of the occupied Palestinian territory. Retrieved from:

[11] OCHA. (2017). Occupied Palestinian Territory: Humanitarian Needs Overview 2018, November 2017. Available at:

[12] See footnote 2

[13] See footnote 2

[14] UNRWA. (2021). Annual Operational Report 2021. Retrieved from:

[15] See footnote 9

[16] International Committee of the Red Cross. (2021). ICRC Annual report 2021. Available at:

[17] See footnote 2

[18] Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics. (2020). Palestine. Available at:

[19] See footnote 2

[20] Ministry of Education and Higher Education. (2017). Education Sector Strategic Plan 2017-2022. Available at:

Educational Challenges in Cameroon

Written by Frida Martine E. Brekk

 Cameroon is known as “Africa in miniature”, a country located in central Africa, bordered by Nigeria to the west, Chad to the northeast, the Central African Republic to the east, Gabon and the Republic of the Congo to the south, and Equatorial Guinea to the southwest. With a population over 25 million, Cameroon is one of the most ethnically diverse countries within the African continent, with more than 250 ethnic groups and languages. The country is known for its unique cultural heritage, natural beauty, and abundant natural resources, including oil, gas and minerals. However, Cameroon also faces an array of challenges inclusive of educational barriers, high poverty, inequality, political instability, and environmental degradation. Despite these challenges, the country has made significant progress in recent years, and is working towards achieving sustainable development, and economic stability overall.

Cameroon, like many other nations in the African continent, faces a range of educational challenges that limit access to quality education and hinder the development of human capital. Despite progress in recent years, significant gaps in access, quality and relevance of education persist, particularly in rural areas and among marginalized populations. Inadequate infrastructure and resources, gender inequalities, poor quality of education, vocational training mismatches, and limited funding area some of the key challenges that Cameroon’s education system faces. Addressing these challenges is crucial for improving and promoting inclusive and sustainable development, reduction of poverty, and improving the overall well-being of the country’s citizens. Addressing the obstacles of Cameroons educational challenges will require a concerted effort from the government, civil society, and the international community to increase access to education, and ensure that students are receiving the skills and training required to further succeed in the job market.

Access is largely to blame in regards to the country’s challenges on the topic of education. Despite the nations progress in recent years, many children, particularly in rural areas, still lack access to quality education. This is due to a severe lack of infrastructure and resources including schools, textbooks, and qualified teachers. Many educational institutions in Cameroon are poor in condition, with inadequate facilities and a shortage of lecturers, professors and teachers.

Additionally, there is a significant gender disparity in access to education, with girls facing particular challenges in accessing education due to cultural beliefs and attitudes, poverty, early marriage, and pregnancy. These are particularly acute in rural areas, where the majority of families struggle to afford the costs of education, and there are fewer schools and teachers. As a result, many children find themselves forced to drop out of school prematurely or are never able to attend to begin with, which results in a limitation of opportunities for economic and social advancement. Lack of access to education not only limits individuals ability to secure employment and earn a sustainable income and life, but also limits the potential of individuals to improve their living standards and overcome and reduce poverty on a national scale. In order to address these challenges, the government of Cameroon must work towards the investment of educational infrastructure, increase the number of educators, and directly address the underlying social and economic barriers that enable limitation of access to education for marginalized communities.

 Cameroon’s education system faces notable challenges with regard to gender disparities and gender inequalities. Girls continue to face significant barriers to accessing education. Cultural attitudes, poverty, early marriage, and pregnancy all contribute to lower enrollment rates and higher drop out rates among girls. This not only limits their opportunities for independent, personal growth and development but also hinders the overall development of the nation as a whole. In addition to lower enrollment rates, girls also face discrimination in the classroom. They are often subjected to lower expectations, receiving less attention from teachers, and are therefore given fewer opportunities for advanced study. This hinders social mobility and perpetuates a cycle of gender inequality that limits the potential of girls and women alike, both in terms of personal achievement and contributions to the country’s economy and society.

According to UNESCO data, in 2019, the net enrollment rate for girls in primary school in Cameroon was 83.5%, compared to 92.4% for boys. For secondary school, the net enrollment rate for girls was 33.5%, compared to 42.1% for boys. Drop out rates for girls are also significantly higher than for boys at both the primary and secondary levels. According to the Ministry of Basic Education, the primary school dropout rates for girls was at 10.6% in 2018, compared to 7.6% for boys. At the secondary level, the dropout rate for girls was 36.5% , compared to 26.2% for boys.

Cameroon has implemented a range of policies and programs aimed at promoting gender equality within the education system. These efforts include elimination of gender stereotypes in the classroom promotion of girls’ education in rural areas, and provide financial support to families in hopes to offset the costs of schooling. Non-governmental organizations and civil society groups have played a critical role in advancing gender equality in education, working to raise awareness of the importance of girls’ education by supporting programs that promote access to these marginalized groups. Despite these efforts, progress has been slow, and significant challenges very much remain. Further action and effort is required to address social norms that perpetuated gender inequality, and promote equal opportunities for all students, regardless of their gender or socio-economic background and status. By actively addressing these challenges, Cameroon can assist in ensuring that all of its citizens have the opportunity to reach their full potential and contribute to the overall growth and development of their nation.

The lack of quality in Cameroon’s education system is another vital concern. The quality of education and the system remains low, with limited resources and inadequate teacher training and certification. According to the World Bank, only 47% of students can read a simple sentence in French or English by the end of primary school, and only 32% can do basic mathematics. This lack of quality in education results in significant implications for the country’s overall development and advancement, as it limits the potential of its citizens and therefore inhibits economic growth. The access to quality education is ever more linked to socio-economic status, with children from poorer families less likely to have access to quality education. This contributes to a never ending cycle of poverty and inequality, with limited opportunities for those who are unable to access said education. Cameroon’s policies and efforts to provide advanced training to teachers, increase access to newer textbooks and alike learning materials, and promote the use of technology within classrooms has fallen short – much more needs to be done to ensure access to quality education.

Non-governmental organizations and civil society groups have played a critical role in promoting access to education, working to improve trainings and through support programs in hopes of better learning outcomes. These efforts have been imperative in advancing access for marginalized communities. Moreover, the majority of educational materials and textbooks used are outdated, with little effort made to update the content or incorporate new teaching methods. This has led to a mismatch between the skills taught in schools and the demands of the ever evolving job market, hindering the ability of students to develop the skills required to succeed in todays modern economy.

Alongside the lack of material, Cameroon’s significant challenge lays in overcrowded educational institutions, which are more prevalent in rural areas. According to a report by the World Bank, the student-teacher ratio in primary schools is approximately 49:1, which is substantially higher than the recommended ratio of 30:1. This places a strain on the education infrastructure and disables teachers from providing individualized attentions students. Educational institutions lack basic facilities such as classrooms, desks and chairs, resulting in students sitting on the floor or sharing desks, which can lead to further distractions in an already deficient environment – hindering their ability to learn and develop new skills. As many schools are underfunded and struggle to meet basic needs, let alone invest in newer resources – resulting in outdated textbooks, resources and equipment and further results in failure to engage and motivate students. Additionally, the procurement process for textbooks and learning materials can be slow and bureaucratic, making it difficult to obtain the latest materials in a timely manner, or in any way at all. Lack of internet access and digital infrastructure is another major challenge faced by the education institutions in Cameroon.

Unemployment is a staggering challenge, particularity among the youth of Cameroon. According to the World Bank, the youth unemployment rate was estimated to be over 13% in 2019, and this figure is ever likely to already be higher in reality due to underemployment and informal work. One major factor contributing to this issue is the lack of vocational training programs. Vocational training programs have successfully proven to provide skills and experience required to enter the workforce and further build sustainable livelihoods. However, these programs are often limited in scope and accessibility, or completely nonexistent due to the high cost of tuition as well as limited availability of said programs. Additionally, there is often a mismatch between the skills taught in vocational training programs alongside the needs of employers within the current, yet ever changing job market. Lack of vocational training programs contributes to a cycle of poverty and unemployment, particularly in rural areas where access to formal education and thereafter job opportunities, if existent, is limited. This results in youth taking on low-paying jobs, as well as work in the informal economy, where wages are inadequate and working conditions are uncontrolled, and can be hazardous. In order to take action towards this concern, the government of Cameroon has launched a “National Vocational Training Strategy” aimed at expanding the reach and scope of vocational training programs across the country, as well as partnering alongside already established international organizations in providing funding and further support. Said NGOs, and international organizations alike have providing further independent funding and resources in advocating for policy reforms aimed at expanding access to quality vocational training. By ensuring these programs are tailored to the needs of the labor market, Cameroon can assist in the reduction of unemployment and provide its citizens with the skills and required experience to build sustainable livelihoods, as this would be in the interest to the economic advancement of the country as a whole.

In recent years, education funding in Cameroon has been a high topic of concern as the government continues to fall short in meeting the needs. Despite the governments commitment to education, the allocation of resources to the sector has been inadequate, leading to an array of setbacks and shortcomings. According to a recent report by the United Nations Development Program, Cameroon’s education sector is facing a funding shortfall of over $300 million. This funding gap has had a severe impact on the quality of education in the country, where schools often lack basic amenities as aforementioned. A critical issue being the lack of investment in the training and recruitment of educators. The majority of educational institutions in the nation struggle to attract and retain qualified teachers due to poor working conditions and even lower salaries, resulting in students left with inadequate instruction. Infrastructure is also underfunded, resulting in a lack of running water, electricity and proper sanitation facilities, making it difficult for students to study and pursue their studies in a conducive environment. This lack of infrastructure has led to a high drop out rate. Despite these challenges, the government has implemented the “Education Sector Plan” (ESP) in 2018. The ESP aims to improve access to quality education, particularly for girls, and increase investment in teacher training as well as recruitment. However, critics argue that the governments efforts fall short and much more needs to be done in addressing the shortcomings within the country’s education sector. They point to the fact that Cameroon’s education spending is well below the recommendation of 20% of the national budget, with only 13% allocated to the sector in 2020. Education funding in Cameroon remains a staggering challenge that requires immediate, urgent and transparent attention. The government must prioritize investment in the sectors to ensure that all students have access to quality education in order to achieve their full potential. Failure to do so will mean long-term implications for the country’s social and economical development.

Lack of education exacerbates health problems in Cameroon. Education plays a vital and imperative role in promoting health, particularly in areas such as maternal and child health, infectious diseases, and nutrition. Lack of education hinders the populations ability to access health education and information, leading to preventable health issues and lack of knowledge and skills to take care of their health in preventing diseases, seek appropriate medical care, or understanding in the importance of vaccinations and other preventative measures. Secondly, many Cameroonians may not be aware of the risks of certain behaviors, such as unprotected sex, that can lead to the transmission of diseases. Lack of education limits their understanding of health-related issues and reduces the individuals ability to make informed decisions accordingly. Thirdly, lack of education statistically contributes directly to poor nutrition, which is a significant health problem in this western African nation. Malnutrition affects a significant portion of the population, specifically children under the age of 5. It is studied that without education, individuals may not known how to grow, prepare, and consume a balanced diet.

Additionally, the lack of education directly hinders the country’s ability to address public health issues such as epidemics and pandemics. During Covid-19, the lack of education was directly connected to the difficulties endured by the population to understand and comply with health guidelines, leading to increased transmission rates. Lastly, women who lack education are less likely to seek medical care when necessary, as lack of education limits their ability to access health care altogether which directly results in higher rates of maternal and child mortality. In addition to strengthening the education sector, the health education should also be integrated into the curriculum in a safe, conclusive and secure manner for both genders alike.

Additionally, the lack of education contributes to social unrest as well as political instability. When individuals are unable to secure employment or participate fully in the economy, they are more likely to become involved in criminal activities or even join extremist groups. In Cameroon, the lack of education has been identified as a contributing factor to the rise of Boko Haram and other extremist groups. Boko Haram are recognized as a group seeking to establish the Islamic state, whilst opposing western education, which they view as a threat to their ideology, this extremist group is a concern within Cameroon in regards to the education sector. Boko Haram has specifically targeted schools, particularly those in the northern regions of the country, where poverty and lack of education are prevalent. The group has abducted school children and attacked institutions, resulting in the closure of schools and hindering children’s access to education. Boko Haram has been recognized in using education as a recruitment tool, targeting vulnerable youth who lack access to education by promising them ‘a better life’ if they join the group. Poverty has fueled hopelessness among youth in Cameroon, making them vulnerable to extremist ideologies. Additionally, this has perpetuated social inequality, particularly gender disparities, which have resulted in the exploitation of girls and women by the extremist groups. To counter the rise of existing and creation of further extremist groups, the focus on education is imperative.

Cameroon’s English speaking minority has been marginalized by the dominant francophone nation since 2017. The unresolved and ongoing civil war conflict has resulted in at least 15 attacks at in schools, resulting in the shut down and depriving 700,000 students from education. The education system has been held hostage by this military-separatist war. “Armed separatists bear full responsibility for these targeted attacks on education, but the response of the Cameroonian government and security forces has been inadequate and is hampered by the numerous abusive counterinsurgency operations in the Anglophone regions, which have spread deep mistrust among the civilian population victimized by these operations,” according to HRW. This has resulted in “uneducated generation of Anglophone youth joining criminal fighters because they lack other economic survival skills” writes journalist Aurore Bonny for the Anadolu Agency.

Cameroon faces various educational challenges that consistently hinder the country’s progress towards sustainable development. While significant progress has been made, much still needs to be accomplished in order to ensure that every Cameroonian has access to equal and quality education. Addressing these challenges will demand a collective, unified and transparent effort from the government, civil society organizations, and international partners. Only then can Cameroon provide its citizens with the tools required in order to build a prosperous future and contribute to the development of their nation.

Educational challenges in Mexico: Access to education where inequality and discrimination deepens, and violence floods the social space

Written by Ivel Sestopal


Mexico is facing an educational crisis; it is well known in Mexican society that many things are lacking inside the educational system. Besides the OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) demanding better institutions to attend to the educational reality of the country, there has been a lot of pressure from other Institutions to attend to the issue. It is a country in development that depends economically on other countries and has a difficult social reality where corruption and drug dealing are a reality and it has been normalized in society.

The main issues in Mexican education have to do with poor quality, insufficient coverage at some levels, and high dropout rates in levels beyond primary[i]. For instance, Mexico is a country that has a lot of cultural diversity as well as socio-economic issues that have created a huge gap between social classes. This reality has forced children to drop out of school and help their family, in some cases, forced to work with cartels creating dropouts and breaking the educational dynamic for children and youth which is problematic due to the fact that upper secondary attainment is a minimum qualification for most of the labor market. 44% of young adults left school without an upper secondary qualification in comparison with the 14% of the OECD partner countries.[ii]

This article highlights four major challenges to education that are seen in Mexico.

Education coverage and diversity


One of the main challenges is that Mexico doesn’t guarantee education to most of the citizens. With 43.9% of the population living in poverty,[iii] it has become a challenge for people living in marginalized zones to access education due to a lack of transport, materials, and health problems.

Most indigenous communities often have to travel for hours to reach the nearest school further highlighting the issue that there haven’t been enough schools built in these rural areas, putting rural and indigenous students at a disadvantage since they have to leave their communities and encounter many difficulties to further their education[iv].

Since public education is funded by the federal state, the budget given to states is not always coherent with the necessities of each one. For example, a state with less infrastructure and bigger demand if books might have less budget than one that is located at the center of a city which deepens the inequality of education between states with respective needs or considerations[v]. For example, the state of Baja California and Mexico State contributes 40% of the total education budget through state funds[vi], being a clear example of budget inequality.

Gender and Indigeneity Inequality


Mexican culture especially in the most marginalized places is attached to the belief of women confining themselves to their homes taking care of the children and other home related tasks because of which Mexican girls are more likely than boys to drop out of school denying them not only access to basic levels of education but also to access higher levels of education.

Child marriage is still a custom in most Mexican communities and 83% of married Mexican girls leave school[vii].

There is also an existing inequality in the access to education for indigenous communities in which the system and programs are not designed for their customs or even language. Some of the courses are not even suitable for the way of life of these children as it does not take into consideration the different backgrounds that these children come from.

Management inside the educational system


School in Mexico is organized by public and private education, the public is based on state authority and school administrators but there are no decisions that involve the important stakeholders such as parents and students. There is an institution called SEP (Secretary of Public Education) that sets all major guidelines about public schools and is characterized by a lack of transparency and accountability for the correct application of financial resources[viii], limiting the access to information and analysis of the development of public schools.

Parents and teachers have been protesting against the institution and demanding an investigation due to the sale of plazas and acts of corruption. The sale of plazas is the action of one teacher selling his position to another person in exchange for money, due to the lack of efficiency in registration for being a teacher in public schools and due to the corrupted system people can buy their place into the school.

In some cases, these people are not even qualified to teach. Teachers who aspire to be assistant principals, directors, pedagogical technical advisors, and general supervisors understand that they have three ways to achieve these. Buying the place. By influences. Or through the political favor of the current ruler.[ix]

Lack of resources or investment in educational infrastructure


Schools located in marginalized places and even public schools located in the city present unfavorable conditions and infrastructure which diminishes the well-being and the opportunities for knowledge denying the right to quality education for the students. There is also a lack of surveys conducted for schools, teachers, and alumni on basic education indicators to improve infrastructure based on the deficits identified[x]. This causes a backlash for the students to grow with their educational level and creates a more distinguished barrier between public and private schools.

Another example is the lack of classrooms for students, especially in schools located in rural areas which are mainly indigenous students with present a higher number of students than classrooms[xi].

In terms of learning materials, only 43.3% of schools count libraries or spaces with scholarly books whereas only 22% of indigenous schools have these materials. And this is not only seen in public schools, but it can also surprise us that almost one-third of all private schools in Mexico lack a library[xii].

It poses a challenge for children and young people to learn with an absence of basic materials for education and becomes difficult for them to keep evolving in their education when there is no access to technologies in such a globalized world where 1.7% of them have access to the Internet and only 7% have a computer.[xiii]


The Mexican education system cannot develop and strengthen itself if it keeps having corrupted individuals working within the educational system. In addition, the difference of education between private and public, rural and urban creates more bridges between access and quality of education. It is going to deepen and cause more inequality between individuals in Mexican society.

We can see clear evidence between the budget that is being expended in some states for education in comparison with the ones that are more centralized to the city. However, access to technologies and materials for everyone regardless of their environment is essential. Mexico will have to assess these issues in order to show better results with the international community as well as with the obligation it has to its citizens for access to free and quality education for all.



[i] Santibanez, L., Vernez, G., Razquin, P. (2005). Education in Mexico: Challenges and Opportunities. RAND Corporation. Retrieved from:

[ii] OECD (2022), “Mexico”, in Education at a Glance 2022: OECD Indicators, OECD Publishing, Paris. DOI:

[iii] CONEVAL (2020). Medición de la Pobreza. Retrieved from:

[iv] Santibanez, L., Vernez, G., Razquin, P. (2005). Education in Mexico: Challenges and Opportunities. RAND Corporation. Retrieved from:

[v] Santibanez, L., Vernez, G., Razquin, P. (2005). Education in Mexico: Challenges and Opportunities. RAND Corporation. Retrieved from:

[vi] Santibanez, L., Vernez, G., Razquin, P. (2005). Education in Mexico: Challenges and Opportunities. RAND Corporation. Retrieved from:

[vii] International Community Foundation. (2022). 4 Barriers to quality educatoin in the Mexico School System. Retrieved from:

[viii] Mejia Guevara, I., Giorguli Saucedo, S. (2014). Public Educatoin in Mexico: Is all the spending for the benefit of children?. Retrieved from:

[ix] Noticias Reportero. (2021) Corrupción en la SEP, ascensos al mejos postor. Retrieved from:

[x] Miranda Lopez, F. (2018). Infraestructura escolar en México: brechas traslapadas, esfuerzos y límites de la política pública. Perfiles educativos40(161), 32-52. Retrieved from:

[xi] Miranda Lopez, F. (2018). Infraestructura escolar en México: brechas traslapadas, esfuerzos y límites de la política pública. Perfiles educativos40(161), 32-52. Retrieved from:

[xii] Miranda Lopez, F. (2018). Infraestructura escolar en México: brechas traslapadas, esfuerzos y límites de la política pública. Perfiles educativos40(161), 32-52. Retrieved from:

[xiii] Miranda Lopez, F. (2018). Infraestructura escolar en México: brechas traslapadas, esfuerzos y límites de la política pública. Perfiles educativos40(161), 32-52. Retrieved from: