Educational challenges in Mexico: Access to education where inequality and discrimination deepens, and violence floods the social space

Written by Ivel Sestopal


Mexico is facing an educational crisis; it is well known in Mexican society that many things are lacking inside the educational system. Besides the OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) demanding better institutions to attend to the educational reality of the country, there has been a lot of pressure from other Institutions to attend to the issue. It is a country in development that depends economically on other countries and has a difficult social reality where corruption and drug dealing are a reality and it has been normalized in society.

The main issues in Mexican education have to do with poor quality, insufficient coverage at some levels, and high dropout rates in levels beyond primary[i]. For instance, Mexico is a country that has a lot of cultural diversity as well as socio-economic issues that have created a huge gap between social classes. This reality has forced children to drop out of school and help their family, in some cases, forced to work with cartels creating dropouts and breaking the educational dynamic for children and youth which is problematic due to the fact that upper secondary attainment is a minimum qualification for most of the labor market. 44% of young adults left school without an upper secondary qualification in comparison with the 14% of the OECD partner countries.[ii]

This article highlights four major challenges to education that are seen in Mexico.

Education coverage and diversity


One of the main challenges is that Mexico doesn’t guarantee education to most of the citizens. With 43.9% of the population living in poverty,[iii] it has become a challenge for people living in marginalized zones to access education due to a lack of transport, materials, and health problems.

Most indigenous communities often have to travel for hours to reach the nearest school further highlighting the issue that there haven’t been enough schools built in these rural areas, putting rural and indigenous students at a disadvantage since they have to leave their communities and encounter many difficulties to further their education[iv].

Since public education is funded by the federal state, the budget given to states is not always coherent with the necessities of each one. For example, a state with less infrastructure and bigger demand if books might have less budget than one that is located at the center of a city which deepens the inequality of education between states with respective needs or considerations[v]. For example, the state of Baja California and Mexico State contributes 40% of the total education budget through state funds[vi], being a clear example of budget inequality.

Gender and Indigeneity Inequality


Mexican culture especially in the most marginalized places is attached to the belief of women confining themselves to their homes taking care of the children and other home related tasks because of which Mexican girls are more likely than boys to drop out of school denying them not only access to basic levels of education but also to access higher levels of education.

Child marriage is still a custom in most Mexican communities and 83% of married Mexican girls leave school[vii].

There is also an existing inequality in the access to education for indigenous communities in which the system and programs are not designed for their customs or even language. Some of the courses are not even suitable for the way of life of these children as it does not take into consideration the different backgrounds that these children come from.

Management inside the educational system


School in Mexico is organized by public and private education, the public is based on state authority and school administrators but there are no decisions that involve the important stakeholders such as parents and students. There is an institution called SEP (Secretary of Public Education) that sets all major guidelines about public schools and is characterized by a lack of transparency and accountability for the correct application of financial resources[viii], limiting the access to information and analysis of the development of public schools.

Parents and teachers have been protesting against the institution and demanding an investigation due to the sale of plazas and acts of corruption. The sale of plazas is the action of one teacher selling his position to another person in exchange for money, due to the lack of efficiency in registration for being a teacher in public schools and due to the corrupted system people can buy their place into the school.

In some cases, these people are not even qualified to teach. Teachers who aspire to be assistant principals, directors, pedagogical technical advisors, and general supervisors understand that they have three ways to achieve these. Buying the place. By influences. Or through the political favor of the current ruler.[ix]

Lack of resources or investment in educational infrastructure


Schools located in marginalized places and even public schools located in the city present unfavorable conditions and infrastructure which diminishes the well-being and the opportunities for knowledge denying the right to quality education for the students. There is also a lack of surveys conducted for schools, teachers, and alumni on basic education indicators to improve infrastructure based on the deficits identified[x]. This causes a backlash for the students to grow with their educational level and creates a more distinguished barrier between public and private schools.

Another example is the lack of classrooms for students, especially in schools located in rural areas which are mainly indigenous students with present a higher number of students than classrooms[xi].

In terms of learning materials, only 43.3% of schools count libraries or spaces with scholarly books whereas only 22% of indigenous schools have these materials. And this is not only seen in public schools, but it can also surprise us that almost one-third of all private schools in Mexico lack a library[xii].

It poses a challenge for children and young people to learn with an absence of basic materials for education and becomes difficult for them to keep evolving in their education when there is no access to technologies in such a globalized world where 1.7% of them have access to the Internet and only 7% have a computer.[xiii]


The Mexican education system cannot develop and strengthen itself if it keeps having corrupted individuals working within the educational system. In addition, the difference of education between private and public, rural and urban creates more bridges between access and quality of education. It is going to deepen and cause more inequality between individuals in Mexican society.

We can see clear evidence between the budget that is being expended in some states for education in comparison with the ones that are more centralized to the city. However, access to technologies and materials for everyone regardless of their environment is essential. Mexico will have to assess these issues in order to show better results with the international community as well as with the obligation it has to its citizens for access to free and quality education for all.



[i] Santibanez, L., Vernez, G., Razquin, P. (2005). Education in Mexico: Challenges and Opportunities. RAND Corporation. Retrieved from:

[ii] OECD (2022), “Mexico”, in Education at a Glance 2022: OECD Indicators, OECD Publishing, Paris. DOI:

[iii] CONEVAL (2020). Medición de la Pobreza. Retrieved from:

[iv] Santibanez, L., Vernez, G., Razquin, P. (2005). Education in Mexico: Challenges and Opportunities. RAND Corporation. Retrieved from:

[v] Santibanez, L., Vernez, G., Razquin, P. (2005). Education in Mexico: Challenges and Opportunities. RAND Corporation. Retrieved from:

[vi] Santibanez, L., Vernez, G., Razquin, P. (2005). Education in Mexico: Challenges and Opportunities. RAND Corporation. Retrieved from:

[vii] International Community Foundation. (2022). 4 Barriers to quality educatoin in the Mexico School System. Retrieved from:

[viii] Mejia Guevara, I., Giorguli Saucedo, S. (2014). Public Educatoin in Mexico: Is all the spending for the benefit of children?. Retrieved from:

[ix] Noticias Reportero. (2021) Corrupción en la SEP, ascensos al mejos postor. Retrieved from:

[x] Miranda Lopez, F. (2018). Infraestructura escolar en México: brechas traslapadas, esfuerzos y límites de la política pública. Perfiles educativos40(161), 32-52. Retrieved from:

[xi] Miranda Lopez, F. (2018). Infraestructura escolar en México: brechas traslapadas, esfuerzos y límites de la política pública. Perfiles educativos40(161), 32-52. Retrieved from:

[xii] Miranda Lopez, F. (2018). Infraestructura escolar en México: brechas traslapadas, esfuerzos y límites de la política pública. Perfiles educativos40(161), 32-52. Retrieved from:

[xiii] Miranda Lopez, F. (2018). Infraestructura escolar en México: brechas traslapadas, esfuerzos y límites de la política pública. Perfiles educativos40(161), 32-52. Retrieved from:

Educational challenges in Paraguay: socioeconomic inequality as key to educational progress

Written by Agnes Amaral


Paraguay is a South American country that contains a diverse amount of ethnical and racial population. In number, more than half of the country is mestizo, 30% of white people, and almost 3% indigenous. These numbers are important in a way to create policies that embrace all people[1]. Another important factor about Paraguay is the role religion plays in this society. According to Latinobarometro data[2], almost 90% of the Paraguayan population is Catholic. This means religion plays a very strong role in people’s decisions and ethical behavior. Cultural decisions based on religion tend to define distinct roles between genders and races. The population is also divided between urban and rural, with almost 40% of the rural and farm population. This generates a diversity of actions that accentuate gender inequality and prejudice linked to the fate of certain groups in that society.

Marked by a sequence of authoritarian governments and complex development processes, Paraguay has immense social inequalities that mirror education. These factors are relevant for analyzing the educational situation and the challenges faced in the country. When asked about fairness in access to education, 47.5% state an “unfair” access while 32% mention a “very unfair” access[3]. This leads us to ask: why is the access to education in Paraguay considered very unfair by the majority of the population?

Digital education efforts in Paraguay – UNICEF

Social Inequality and Covid-19 Pandemic

The first big problem that impacts education is inequality. Data from 2020 reveals that the discussion about the problems in the country is related to poverty, financial problems, and educational challenges[4]. This is something that affects not only Paraguay, but all of Latin America and the Caribbean. For instance, during the Covid-19 pandemic, there is what they call an “educational blackout”[5].

Due to the closing of the schools, education took place online. The problem in this situation is that access to the Internet is limited by equipment, good network quality, and digital skills. Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC) data report that, among students under 18 years old, about 60% had no Internet access in Paraguay. This became a challenge to education during the two years of remote education. However, considering the connected reality in which we live, this can still be considered a palpable problem for the country and the region.

Unequal access to education affects education rates long before the pandemic. In 2019, for example, when checking the performance of elementary school students, the result is that Paraguayan students had lower levels of performance in mathematics. About the low progress, the Director of the Regional Bureau for Education in Latin America and the Caribbean (OREALAC) of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), Claudia Uribe mentions the need to take urgent governmental measures to achieve the 2030 Agenda[6].  This school exclusion affects some groups more sharply. Students from indigenous peoples, afro-descendants, and migrants encounter disadvantages.

Indigenous Girls & Women

The creation of the country was based on the exclusion of indigenous peoples. For this reason, it is possible to note the social impacts suffered by these groups to this day. It is a large ethnic diversity. The right to be involved, political participation, and access to education are essential to mitigate these inequalities. There are constitutional advances in this sense, such as the 1992 Constitution, which recognizes and guarantees the rights of indigenous peoples in Paraguay:


The State shall respect the cultural peculiarities of the indigenous peoples, especially with regard to formal education. Attention shall also be paid to their defense against demographic regression, depredation of their habitat, environmental pollution, economic exploitation, and cultural alienation.  (Artículos de la Constitución Nacional)[7]

However, the reality is indigenous people dealing with exclusion and poverty. This affects the educational indicators of the indigenous population, which worsen when we consider the reality of the indigenous female population. In Paraguay, free and mandatory schooling lasts nine years (basic education)[8]. Considering this, Indigenous men stay in education for a little less than five years, while Indigenous women about 3.5 years. A big difference in the amount of education guaranteed. Data from the Permanent Continuous Household Survey (EPHC)[9] shows three main reasons for these school leavings.

The first is for family reasons. About 20% of indigenous women dropped out of their studies because they had too many domestic activities to do. The second reason involves economic aspects. In this case, more than 25% of the indigenous men dropped out of school because they needed to get a job. And the third reason is the lack of sufficient educational institutions. Especially an education in which their culture and their views are considered, as mentioned in Constitutional Article[10]. The way of life of many indigenous communities is still based on hunting and gathering customs. A school that adapts to this reality is necessary and, for this, the government needs to invest in this type of proposal beyond a constitutional vision[11].

This is a reality of racial-ethnic inequalities, but also of gender inequalities. A reality that has been propagated since colonial times, in which indigenous women and girls were kidnapped by colonizers to occupy positions of domestic maintenance and procreation. The colonizing process impacted the economic system of these traditional peoples, which is not seen as productive enough. The role of indigenous women, then, shifts within this reality. This is why their socio-economic status has such an impact on the achievement of education. Almost 70% of indigenous women are in poverty. Many of them are considered “economically inactive” because they only perform domestic activities[12]. Some authors mention that “being an indigenous woman” in this society implies triple discrimination: ethnic, gender, and class.

The guarantee of the right to education for this part of the Paraguayan population is urgent. Although progress has been made, a better institutionalization of these rights is needed. This must be done while respecting and strengthening the specific culture of each indigenous group.


The lines of hope for improving the educational challenges faced by Paraguay need to be directed at mitigating socioeconomic inequality.  A more inclusive, equitable, and safe school structure is needed. Above all, universalization of access to secondary education. The use of digital transformation in favor of educational progress is also urgent since it is useful and essential learning for the contemporary reality we live in. Investing in education is one of the keys to sustainable development.

These impacts of inequality are also directly linked to the reality of indigenous women. However, more than policies to improve and actions to combat this inequality, it is necessary to give these women the power to make decisions. The issues of poverty and education are just some of the problems faced by this group. Violence is high, and several indigenous women are organizing themselves in the form of activism to combat violence[13]. In this sense, the activism and organization of these peoples are continuously advancing to fight for the guarantee of indigenous peoples’ rights. However, increasing opportunities for political positions and placing them as creators of specific public policies seems to be the most appropriate action.

Although the constitutional right to education exists for every citizen of Paraguay, it is important to point out the distinction that exists between the prerogative of a right and the reality of a quality education. For all.



[1] Soto, C., & Soto, L. (2020). POLÍTICAS ANTIGÉNERO EN AMÉRICA LATINA: PARAGUAY (S. Correa, Ed.; Género & Politica em América Latina, Trans.) [Review of POLÍTICAS ANTIGÉNERO EN AMÉRICA LATINA: PARAGUAY]. Observatorio de Sexualidad y Política (SPW).

[2] Latinobarómetro Database. (2020).

[3] Latinobarómetro Database. (2020).

[4] Latinobarómetro Database. (2020).

[5] Caribe, C. E. para a A. L. e o. (2022, November 29). Seminario web “La transformación de la educación como base para el desarrollo sostenible.”

[6] (2021, November 30). Resultados de logros de aprendizaje y factores asociados del Estudio Regional Comparativo y Explicativo (ERCE 2019). UNESCO.

[7] Artículos de la Constitución Nacional. Secretaría Nacional de Cultura. (2011, August 17). Retrieved April 7, 2023, from,econ%C3%B3mica%20y%20la%20alienaci%C3%B3n%20cultural.

[8] SOUZA, K. R., & BUENO, M. L. M. C. (2018). O direito à educação básica no Paraguai. Revista Ibero-Americana de Estudos Em Educação, 13(4), 1536–1551.

[9] Principales Resultados Anuales de la Encuesta Permanente de Hogares Continua (EPHC) 2017 y 2018. (n.d.). Retrieved April 7, 2023, from

[10] INE::Instituto Nacional de Estadística. (n.d.). Retrieved April 7, 2023, from

[11] Situación educativa de las niñas y mujeres indígenas en Paraguay. (n.d.).

[12]  Situación educativa de las niñas y mujeres indígenas en Paraguay. (n.d.).

[13] Por nuestros derechos y contra toda violencia, una reflexión contra la violencia de género con las mujeres indígenas en Paraguay – FIIAPP. (n.d.). Retrieved April 7, 2023, from

Education Challenges in Romania 2022



Education challenges in Romania 2022

Written by Réka Gyaraki



The Romanian education system has developed greatly in the past decades, however it still faces many difficulties in providing all people with the right to access to education. According to the Human Rights Measurement Initiative, Romania is doing 65% of what it could possibly do with its national income when it comes to ensuring the right to education[1]. Romania ranks at the bottom, of all European countries. This essay explores the main educational issues in Romania, sorted into four main categories: access to education, quality of education, discrimination and violence in education and the effect of the Covid-19 pandemic on education.


Access to education

Marginalized social groups and minorities face difficulties in exercising their right to education in Romania. In particular, Hungarian and Roma minority children, disabled, rural and poor children, refugees and children who lack birth certificates are the ones who are the most vulnerable and are often left out of education or have less access than the rest of society.

Hungarians are the largest minority group in Romania and even though minority language education is allowed by law for Hungarian students, they often have no access to it due to the shortage of teachers. In addition, classes about Hungarian culture, history and language are in addition to the Romanian curriculum that all students must follow, resulting in higher number of lessons for minority children, bigger workload and thereby lack of equal opportunity[2].

70% of Roma people live in poverty in Romania according to the World Bank[3]. Poverty limits their access to education as Roma children were found to have lower enrolment rates, higher dropout rates and their illiteracy rate is ten times higher than other students in Romania[4].

In rural areas, 16% (ages 7-10) and 25% (ages 11-14) of children are not enrolled in primary education while these ratios are significantly lower, 9% and 6% respectively in urban areas[5]. This is mainly caused by the lack of educational institutions in rural areas and inadequate infrastructure to travel to the nearest school.

Disabled children also face difficulties in accessing education in Romania. 40% of children with disabilities are placed in segregated schools or do not participate in education at all, while only 21% of high schools are equipped with access ramps[6].

In the year between 2019-2020 Romania adopted a new legal framework to enhance the integration of refugees and migrants. However, enrolment for foreign children still remains a challenge as the procedure is regularly delayed and Romanian language education is hardly accessible because of the shortage of staff [7]. Furthermore, migrant children are often enrolled in grades below their age because of their lack of language skills, they experience psychological problems due to leaving their home country and receive no psychological counselling or support[8].


Roma children in school in Romania



Finally, even though registration at birth is mandatory in Romania, many children still lack these official documents that prevents them from accessing public services such as education, thereby putting them in a disadvantaged position[9].


Quality of education

Although the general literacy rate of people over 15 years was 99% in Romania in 2021, a national literacy study in 2022 found that 42% of Romanian students in grade 1 to 8 are functional illiterate, meaning that they are able to read words and texts but have difficulties in interpreting the information[10].

Dropout rates are the highest in Romania between all EU countries with over 15% in 2021[11]. The Romanian Education Ministry developed the National Program to Reduce School Drop-out to reduce this rate by covering educational expenses. The shortcoming of this policy is that it tries to reduce dropout rates by financial tools, thereby disregarding dropouts caused by pregnancy, child marriage, disability, and other social-cultural and health reasons which cannot be tackled by merely financial tools.

Sanitary conditions are alarmingly poor in Romanian schools. Only 72% of schools had basic drinking water and hygiene services in 2021, which was the lowest in Europe[12]. In 2018, thousands of schools lacked sanitary and fire safety authorization[13]. To ensure the quality and success of education and reduce dropout rates, an undisturbed and well-equipped educational environment is essential.


In Romania many schools do not have drinking water and toilets


Romanian students scored on average 50 points below the OECD average on the 2018 PISA test in all 3 categories (reading, mathematics, science)[14]. Socio-economic status seemed to be a significant predictor of reading test scores in Romania, as the variation between the top and bottom quarters of economic, social and cultural status is one of the highest of all participating countries[15]. This illustrates the inequality in the quality of education received by different social groups.


In 2022 a new law was made in Romania that ruled sex education can only be taught from grade 8 and with the parents’ written consent. Grade 8 in the Romanian education system corresponds to age 14-15 while in the meantime the proportion of teenage mothers is the highest in Romania from all EU countries. In 2020, 357 children were born to mothers between the age 10 and 14 while this number is well below 120 in all other EU states[16]. Making sex education less accessible leads to and early pregnancy and motherhood which often forces young girls to drop out from school and discontinue their education.


Shortage of qualified teachers, low salaries and low societal appreciation of teachers is an issue in many Eastern-European countries and Romania is no exception. In the academic year 2019-2020, the annual gross starting salary of public-school teachers was around 9000 euros in Romania[17], one of the lowest in the EU. This means 750 euros per month which is not enough to cover living costs in Romania.


Information Technology (IT) skills and digital literacy are essential in the 21st century. In Romania only 57% of students between 15 and 19 had basic or above basic IT skills, compared to the 82% EU average[18]. This is mostly caused by schools’ lack of adequate equipment and qualified teachers to offer high-quality IT classes. Rural areas are especially lacking digital infrastructure and internet connection[19].


All these shortcoming of the educational system can be partly explained by the low government spending on education in Romania. In 2020 Romania’s spending on education was the second lowest in the EU with only 3.7% of the country’s GDP compared to the 5% EU average[20].


Discrimination and violence in education


Roma students experience discrimination in the Romanian education system, just as the minority is often discriminated against in the whole population. Roma children are often put in segregated classrooms despite the 2007 Ministerial Order that banned their segregation which has lacked implementation ever since. Segregated classes have often worse learning environment compared to mixed classes[21], they lack heating, water and qualified teaching staff  more often and therefore have lower academic results and higher dropout rates[22].

A study showed that 30% of female students experience some form of sexual harassment and abuse throughout their studies while this ratio is 50% for university students[23]. Sexual abuse committed by teachers often remains unreported because of the social status and power of teachers and because of the fear of adverse consequences. Sexual harassment affects children’s physical and mental well-being, increases the chance of depression and can lead to teenage pregnancy, which again, forces girls to drop out from school.


A study from 2022 found that 82% of students have witnessed bullying at school, illustrating the prevalence of the issue[24]. Bullying at school can take various forms such as social exclusion, physical threats and spreading rumours and can have a negative effect on victims’ mental health which in turn affects their academic progress and learning process.


Bullying at school



Effects of Covid-19 on education


In 2020 the Covid-19 pandemic hit the world and schools around the globe closed and switched to online education to halt the spread of the virus. Online education deepened the gap between urban and rural areas as rural students had significantly less access to internet and digital equipment necessary to participate in classes. In 2021, 87% of urban households had access to internet, while only 73% in rural areas[25]. The Ministry of Education and Research estimated that over 250.000 children had no access to online education during the pandemic because of lack of electricity, equipment or internet[26]. These disadvantaged students from poor areas fell behind with the course materials and without immediate measures, their dropout rates will increase.


Another barrier of online education is the lack of IT skills. 50% of students who did not attend online classes reported that the reason for this was that the teacher did not give classes online[27]. This is mostly caused by teachers’ lack of knowledge on how to teach online and the teachers’ lack of access to internet, equipment, and online educational tools. In addition, 13% of students reported that they did not know how to use online platforms[28]. The pandemic affected the education process of marginalized children more, creating further challenges for them to access education.





Asproiu, I. (2022). Romanian educational platform aims to reduce school dropout with online courses for students. Romania Insider.

Bîzgan, O. (2020). Equal access to education for unregistered children.

European Commission. (2020). Education and Training Monitor 2020 – Romania.

European Education and Culture Executive Agency. (2021). Teachers’ and School Heads’ Salaries and Allowances in Europe – 2019/20. Publication Office of the European Union.

European Roma Rights Centre. (2016). Written Comments of the European Roma Rights Centre, Concerning Romania.

Eurostat. (2017). Teenage and older mothers in the EU.

Eurostat. (2022). Early leavers from education and training.

Eurostat. (2022). Government expenditure on education. (2016). Save the Children: Over 16% of rural children, between 7 and 10 years old, do not go to school.

Marica, I. (2021). Statistics office: Over 80% of households in Romania have access to the internet. Romania Insider.

Mercator European Research Centre on Multilingualism and Language Learning. (2019). The Hungarian Language in Education in Romania.

OECD. (2022). Education GPS – Romania – Student performance (PISA 2018).

Ofițeru, A. (2022). Why are Romanian students functionally illiterate? Education of bottomless forms and timeless eternity. Europa Liberă România.

Right to education – HRMI Rights Tracker. (2022). Human Rights Measurement Initiative.

Romania Insider. (2018). School year starts in Romania but many schools don’t have necessary permits.

Sârbu, E. A., & Oneț, R. (2020). Violence, Gender and Ethnic Discrimination in Two Romanian Cities. Identities in Globalization. Intercultural Perspectives, 134–138.

Terre des Hommes. (2021). Access to education for migrant children and youth in Romania.

UNICEF. (2020). Rapid assessment of the situation of children and their families with a focus on the vulnerable ones in the context of the COVID-19 outbreak in Romania – round 1.

United States Department of State. (2021). Romania 2021 Human Rights Report.

van Kline, M. (2022a). Journalistic project aims to document the sexual harassment in Romanian schools. Romania Insider.

van Kline, M. (2022b). Save the Children Romania survey shows bullying is a widespread issue in Romanian schools. Romania Insider.

WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme. (2022). Progress on drinking water, sanitation and hygiene in schools.

World Bank. (2021). Roma Inclusion in Romania.




[1] Human Rights Measurement Initiative. (2022). Rights to Education

[2] Mercator European Research Centre on Multilingualism and Language Learning. (2019). The Hungarian Language in Education in Romania

[3] World Bank. (2021). Roma Inclusion in Romania

[4] Sârbu & Oneț. (2020). Violence, Gender and Ethnic Discrimination in Two Romanian Cities

[5] (2016). Save The Children: Over 16% of rural children, between 7 and 10 years old, do not go to school

[6] United States Department of State. (2021). Romania 2021 Human Rights Report

[7] Terre des Hommes. (2021). Access to Education for Migrant Children and Youth in Romania

[8] Ibid.

[9] Bîzgan, O. (2020). Equal Access to Education for Unregistered Children

[10] Ofițeru, A. (2022). Why Are Romanian Students Functionally Illiterate?

[11] Eurostat. (2022). Early Leavers from Education and Training

[12] WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme. (2022). Progress on Drinking Water, Sanitation and Hygiene in Schools

[13] Romania Insider. (2018). School Year Starts in Romania But Many Schools Don’t Have Necessary Permits

[14] OECD. (2022). Education GPS – Romania – Student Performance (PISA 2018)

[15] Ibid.

[16] Eurostat. (2020). Teenage and Older Mothers in the EU

[17] European Education and Culture Executive Agency. (2021). Teachers’ and School Heads’ Salaries and Allowances in Europe – 2019/20

[18] European Commission. (2020). Education and Training Monitor 2020 – Romania

[19] Ibid.

[20] Eurostat. (2022). Government Expenditure on Education.

[21] European Roma Rights Centre. (2016). Written Comments of the European Roma Rights Centre, Concerning Romania

[22] Ibid.

[23] van Kline, M. (2022). Journalistic Project Aims To Document The Sexual Harassment in Romanian Schools

[24] van Kline, M. (2022). Save the Children Romania Survey Shows Bullying Is A Widespread Issue in Romanian Schools

[25] Marica, I. (2021). Statistics Office: Over 80% Of Households In Romania Have Access To The Internet

[26] Asproiu, I. (2022). Romanian Educational Platform Aims To Reduce School Dropout With Online Courses For Students

[27] UNICEF. (2020). Rapid Assessment Of The Situation Of Children And Their Families With A Focus On The Vulnerable Ones In The Context Of The COVID-19 Outbreak In Romania – Round 1.

[28] Ibid.